Academic US 1 Midterm Review - 3 Federalists Those who...

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3) Federalists - Those who favored the Constitution were called Federalists. They wanted the strong national government that the Constitution provided. The Federalists included George Washington, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton. They argued that even if there were problems with the document (Constitution), it had to be approved. To make their case for the Constitution, several supporters wrote a series of 85 essays, or papers, called The Federalist . (Chapter 5 page 158) 1) Hamilton's program - one of the biggest issues facing the new nation dealt with the huge debts it owed to other nations and its own citizens following the Revolutionary War. As Secretary of Treasury, Alexander Hamilton had the responsibility of organizing an economic policy that could help the nation pay off its debts and become economically stable. The Constitution, he believed, was not enough in itself to preserve the new nation. In his view, the government had to expand its role and actively direct the development of the American economy. To this end, Hamilton proposed a complicated plan designed to help the economy and strengthen the national government. (Chapter 6 pg 200 - 201) 19) Hamilton's debt plan - In 1790, after months of debate, Congress approved Hamilton's plan for the national government to assume (or take responsibility for) the debts acquired by the states during the Revolution. Congress vote was a controversial one. Southern states did not want to help pay back the loans owed by the northern states. Yet Hamilton managed to win the support of the southern states though a deal: If the southern states would back Hamilton's debt plan, Hamilton would gain northern support for a plan to locate the nation's capital in the South. Gaining southern support was only one of the obstacle Hamilton's debt plan faced. As critics pointed out, the federal government already had a huge debt about $75 million. Why would the government want to add to this burden? The answer is simpler than one might think- with this plan the central government woud be strengthened. Most of the state and national debt was owed to European banks and to American merchants and speculators. Hamilton knew that these lenders, did not want any government that owed them money to collapse. If the states owed creditors money, creditors would mostly care about the states. If, on the other hand, the United States owed creditors money, creditors would care mostly about the nation as a whole. Why would the creditors go along with this plan? To satisfy their concerns, Hamilton outlined a specific budget and set up a regular payment plan. (Chapter 6 pg 201) 20) Failure if Jay's Treaty - In the resulting agreement, called Jay's Treaty, Britain agreed to leave the forts it occupied in the Northwest Territory. Other provisions were aimed at expanding trade between the two nations. Jay was unable, however, to convince the British to end their practice of stopping American ships on the high seas and searching them for British subjects. Jay's Treaty unleashed a storm of controversy throughout the United States. Critics complained that it
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