PolarBondsAndResonance(Student)

PolarBondsAndResonance(Student) - Polar bonds and polar...

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Polar bonds and polar molecules Formal charge Resonance Acids and bases Brønsted acids and bases Lewis acids and bases Introduction to functional groups: a group of atoms within a molecule that has a characteristic chemical behaviour. O O I n covalent bonds, electrons are not always shared equally . H H Non-polar covalent bond (equal sharing) H F Polar covalent bond H F H F δ + δ - partial partial positive negative charge charge Polar Bonds
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Electronegativity of an atom: the ability of an atom in a molecule to attract electrons toward itself. δ + δ Polar bonds MgBr H 3 C In organic molecules, atoms with high electronegativities are said to be electron withdrawing. C Cl H H H EN = 0 EN < ~2.0 EN > ~2.0 H 2 HF LiF
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O H H O H H O H H Dipole Moment – measure of the separation of charge in a molecule Molecules with a net dipole moment align in an electric field. + Applied electric field OFF Net dipole is the vector sum of all of the bond dipoles.
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