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A Nation on Trial - A Nation on Trial America and the...

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A Nation on Trial: America and the Coming of the War of 1812 Treaty of Amiens (March 1802) Between Britain, France, Spain, and Holland brought first general peace to Europe since 1792 Proved to an armistice only of brief duration Year later Britain and France were at war again Control of world’s ocean was crucial Britain and France both harassed neutral ships notably American ships Trafalgar/Austerlitz (1805) Trafalgar o From 1798-1805 conquest of Britain was Napoleon’s primary concern o Began to assemble army in low countries opposite of Britain in order to do this the French need to secure the channel but the British Navy was in the way o British destroyed combined French and Spanish fleets at battle of Trafalgar o Victory assured that Napoleon would not revive his attempts to take Britain and that the Royal Navy had control over the seas Austerlitz o Few weeks after Trafalgar o Napoleon defeated Russian and Austrian armies o Napoleon has declared himself Emperor of France and was looking to be Emperor of Russia/Austria o Defeat at this battle forced Austria to negotiate peace and for the Russian Army to retreat o Jefferson said this was awful because one man controlled Europe on land and another by sea (the Royal Navy) but even than this is better than should have one both rule both elements o After Trafalgar Napoleon wanted to exclude British ships and trade from the continent of Europe Berlin (1806) and Milan Decrees (1807) 1806 Napoleon went to war with Prussia Both decrees prohibited any ship controlled by the Royal Navy to trade or be on part of continent controlled by France or her Allies Intention was to eliminate British trade with Europe and ruin destroy it by means of trade British Orders-in-Council / The Essex Decision (1805) / Impressments Retaliation to Berlin and Milan Decrees Required neutral ships to stop at a British port and take out licenses before continuing to continent or else be subject to seizure and sale Americans who abided by one set of decrees were consequently in violation of the other This meant that America as a neutral country could not really have trade with either country British realized we were still trading with French in West Indies and so they put
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an end to all trade with us called that our ships be subject to seizure Would stop American Merchant Ships on the high seas and then force them into the Royal Navy If you were born in England then you still had to serve in Army if so called upon even if you were a naturalized citizen essentially Britain was denouncing the American Revolution Jefferson wanted peace through neutrality but the issue of right and wrong did not seem clear between French and Britain Policy was entirely defensive ordered that a lot of guns be made to protect ourselves against any attack Monroe-Pinkney Treaty (1806) Drawn up by diplomats of the US and Britain/Ireland but was rejected by the US government
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