Chapter 2 -- Establishing a Constitutional Democracy

Chapter 2 -- Establishing a Constitutional Democracy -...

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Establishing a  Constitutional Democracy
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2 Democracy in the Early Colonies The Virginia Company and “Virginia” Founded by Sir Walter Raleigh Named after Queen Elizabeth Colony failed, later bought and named Jamestown Jamestown in 1619 had first representative assembly Self-government short-lived 1624 James I reclaimed the territory by divine right Royal colonies king’s representative elected assemblies (only advisory) Pilgrims (1620) religious dissenters rejected divine right of kings formed Mayflower Compact • express consent to be governed
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3 The Colonial Experience With Democracy: Governance Proprietary colonies : governed by English noble or company when unsuccessful became royal colony Power in both types of colonies divided governor: patronage power two-chamber legislature: power to tax lower chamber: colonial assembly • upper chamber: colonial council • not democratic: voting restricted to qualified males
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4 Spread of Democratic Ideals During the Revolutionary War Taxation without representation 1765 imposition of Stamp Tax on colonies Colonists had never paid a direct tax, had no voice Stamp Act Congress Patriots — Boston Tea Party
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5 Spread of Democratic Ideals During the Revolutionary War The Continental Congresses 1774: First Continental Congress 12 colonies sent delegates issued statement of rights, called for boycott Patriots began military activity; Tories remained loyal to crown Shot heard round the world 1775: Second Continental Congress 1776: Declaration of Independence Seven-year war for independence ended with the Treaty of Paris in 1783
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6 Theory of Rights and Representation Declaration of Independence replaced the “divine right” philosophy with three principles: I. Government arises from consent of the governed. II. Power should be divided among separate institutions. III. Citizen rights must be protected.
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7 Theory of Rights and Representation I. Consent of the Governed Hobbes (1651) Kings govern not by divine right, but by consent of the governed. “war of all against all” “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short” Therefore, must invest power in one ruler to avoid conflict.
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8 Theory of Rights and Representation II. Separation of Powers Locke (1690) consent of governed but no need to concentrate power in one ruler legislative power executive power usually a king Montesquieu later added judicial power
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Theory of Rights and Representation III. Protection of Citizen Rights Whigs: critics of concentration of power
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This note was uploaded on 07/21/2008 for the course GOV 310L taught by Professor Kieth during the Summer '07 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Chapter 2 -- Establishing a Constitutional Democracy -...

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