Module_03_Lab_Worksheet

Module_03_Lab_Worksheet - Module 03 Lab Worksheet Skeletal...

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Module 03 Lab Worksheet: Skeletal System Introduction This week’s lab will focus on studying the extracellular matrix of bone tissue and identifying gross bone anatomy. Objectives Objectives for this week’s lab include: 1) Label the anatomy of bone tissue, 2) Describe the extracellular matrix components of bone tissue, and 3) Identify and label gross bone anatomy. Overview Bone tissue, is a very dynamic and active tissue. Many individuals perceive bone to be an inanimate or lifeless object but that is the furthest thing from the truth. Bone tissue is continuously remodeling its extracellular matrix according to the stresses placed upon it, is highly vascularized blood flow, and is innervated by the nervous system. Bone tissue is composed of a variety of bone cells and the extracellular space. There are three main types of bone cells: Osteocytes, osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The extracellular matrix space contains organic and inorganic matter which, together, give bone it’s characteristic hardness and slight flexibility. The organic matter, which makes up about 35% of the overall mass, is composed of ground substance and collagen fibers. Collagen fibers provide structural support, tensile strength and the bone’s flexibility. The inorganic matter is composed of hydroxyapatites (mineral salts), mainly of calcium phosphate packets surrounding the collagen fibers, which provides bone its hardness characteristic. The balance of organic and inorganic matter within the bone tissue allows bone to be very strong yet resilient and slightly flexible against stresses placed upon it. Bone density refers to the amount of mineral salts (mainly calcium phosphate) per square centimeter of bone and varies between individuals accordingly to age group, sex, culture and lifestyle. It’s vital to maintain a normal bone density otherwise your bones will not be strong enough to support stresses placed upon them and will have a higher risk of bone fractures. Homeostasis of the bone matrix (also referred to as bone remodeling) is a continuous and daily process where about 5-7% of bone mass is recycled each week. Imbalance of bone matrix homeostasis can lead to a condition called osteoporosis, which literally means porous bones, and will result in a dramatic loss of the bone matrix. This weakens the strength of bone against stressors leading to fractures. Osteopenia is a condition that is the precursor to osteoporosis, and is a condition where an individual’s bone density is below average but not as severe as osteoporosis. The osteoblasts produce and secrete ground substance and collagen fibers that stimulate bone growth. Osteoclasts contain enzymes that enzymatically break down
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the bone matrix stimulating the release of calcium from the matrix. Calcium is not only important for bone density but also in clotting blood, nerve impulses, skeletal and cardiac muscle contractions.
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