CSeaton_Module05LabWorksheet2_11052016 - Module 05 Lab...

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Module 05 Lab Worksheet: Skeletal Muscle and Joint Dissection Introduction This week’s lab will focus on the continued study of the gross anatomy and identification of fetal pig skeletal muscles and joint dissection of various synovial joints. Objectives Objectives for this week’s lab include: 1) Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of specimen dissection, 2) Label the gross anatomy of fetal pig muscles, 3) Identify specific muscles of the fetal pig and Homo sapiens (humans), 4) Perform a joint dissection of various synovial joints and demonstrate your knowledge of the anatomy. Overview This week’s laboratory session will continue examining the separation and identification of the skeletal muscles and dissection of various synovial joints on the fetal pig specimens. Tendons are specialized fibrous connective tissue that connects a muscle to bone. As a muscle contracts, its force pulls on the tendon which ultimately moves a bone across a joint. A common tendon that individuals recognize is the Achilles tendon. Ligaments are specialized fibrous connective tissue that connects one bone to another bone providing stability to a joint. A commonly recognized ligament is the anterior cruciate ligament otherwise known as the ACL, which helps stabilize the knee joint. Joints, or articulations, can be classified by structure or function. Functional classification is based on the amount of movement within the joint and are classified as: Synarthroses (immovable), amphiarthroses (slightly moveable) or diarthroses (freely moveable). Structural classification is based on the type of material that ‘binds’ the bones together and are classified as: Fibrous, cartilaginous or synovial joints. The majority of joints in the body are synovial joints, which are freely movable joints, contain a fluid filled joint cavity, are reinforced with ligaments and are considered diarthrotic. There is a correlation between ligaments stabilizing a joint and the joint’s range of motion (ROM); as stability increases- ROM decreases. For example, in comparing the ROM and stabilizing ligaments of the shoulder and hip joints- the shoulder has far more ROM than the hip but is drastically less stable and more likely to dislocate than the hip due to the lack of ligaments stabilizing the joint.
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Synovial joints have a unique articular capsule that surrounds the articulating bones and contains synovial fluid. The synovial fluid’s main function is to reduce friction and provide cushion between the articular cartilage of the articulating bones during movement. Osteoarthritis is an inflammatory condition that causes degenerative breakdown to the various structures of a synovial joint including the bones of joint. Materials Anatomical models of the bone joints Fetal pig specimens Dissection kits and trays Pre-Lab Evaluation Questions The pre-lab evaluation questions must be answered prior to lab and demonstrated to your lab instructor. You must read through the assigned chapter readings, lab introduction, objectives, overview and procedure to answer these questions.
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