Biology - Weeks 8 & 9 Notes

Biology - Weeks 8 & 9 Notes - Biology 2108 Summer 2008...

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Biology 2108 – Summer 2008 – Dr. Davis Abbreviated lecture notes from the weeks starting 7/14/08 and 7/21/08. Corresponds with Chapter 51-55 in Campbell (7th Edition) 51 – Behavioral Ecology Behavioral Ecology The modern scientific discipline of behavioral ecology extends observations of animal behavior by studying how such behavior: is controlled how it develops How it evolved contributes to survival and reproductive success Ecologists distinguish between proximate and ultimate causes of behavior The scientific questions that can be asked about behavior can be divided into two classes Those that focus on the immediate stimulus and mechanism for the behavior Those that explore how the behavior contributes to survival and reproduction What Is Behavior? Behavior is what an animal does and how it does it Includes muscular and nonmuscular activity Learning is also considered a behavioral process Proximate and Ultimate Questions Proximate , or “how,” questions about behavior Focus on the environmental stimuli that trigger a behavior
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Focus on the genetic, physiological, and anatomical mechanisms underlying a behavioral act Ultimate , or “why,” questions about behavior Address the evolutionary significance of a behavior Fixed Action Patterns A fixed action pattern ( FAP ) Is a sequence of unlearned, innate behaviors that is unchangeable Once initiated, is usually carried to completion A FAP is triggered by an external sensory stimulus Known as a sign stimulus FAP Attack Behavior In male stickleback fish, the stimulus for attack behavior is the red underside of an intruder When presented with unrealistic models as long as some red is present, the attack behavior occurs Proximate and ultimate causes for the FAP attack behavior in male stickleback fish (see text) Imprinting Imprinting is a type of behavior that includes both learning and innate components and is generally irreversible Imprinting is distinguished from other types of learning by a sensitive period The sensitive period is a limited phase in an animal s development that is the only time when certain behaviors can be learned There are proximate and ultimate causes for this type of behavior (see text)
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Conservation biologists have taken advantage of imprinting in programs to save the whooping crane from extinction Behavior - The Genetic Component Many behaviors have a strong genetic component Behavior that is developmentally fixed is called innate behavior and is under strong genetic influence Directed Movements Many animal movements are under substantial genetic influence These types of movements are called directed movements Kinesis A kinesis is a simple change in activity or turning rate in response to a stimulus. Example: Sow bugs become more active in dry areas and less active in humid areas Taxis A taxis is an automatic, oriented movement toward or away from a stimulus
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This note was uploaded on 07/22/2008 for the course BIOL 2108 taught by Professor Davis during the Spring '08 term at Kennesaw.

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Biology - Weeks 8 & 9 Notes - Biology 2108 Summer 2008...

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