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Biology - Week 4 Notes

Biology - Week 4 Notes - Biology 2108 Summer 2008 Dr Davis...

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Biology 2108 – Summer 2008 – Dr. Davis Abbreviated lecture notes from the starting 6/16/08. Corresponds with Chapter 40-41 in Campbell (7th Edition) 40 - Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function Physical Laws and Animal Form Physical laws and the environment constrain animal size and shape Place certain limits on the range of animal forms The ability to perform certain actions depends on an animal s shape and size Evolutionary convergence (Fig. 40.2) Convergence reflects the independent adaptation of different species to similar environmental challenges Exchange with the Environment (Fig. 40.3a,b) An animal s size and shape has a direct effect on how the animal exchanges energy and materials with its surroundings Exchange with the environment occurs as substances dissolved in the aqueous medium diffuse and are transported across the cells plasma membranes A single-celled protist living in water has a sufficient surface area of plasma membrane to service its entire volume of cytoplasm Multicellular organisms with a sac body plan have body walls that are only two cells thick, facilitating diffusion of materials Complex body plans: Exchange with the Environment (See Fig 40.4) Animals: Levels of organization Animals are composed of cells Groups of cells with a common structure and function make up tissues Different tissues make up organs which together make up organ systems
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Tissues are classified into four main categories Epithelial , connective , muscle , and nervous Epithelial Tissue (Fig. 40.5, know in detail!) Epithelial tissue Covers the outside of the body and lines organs and cavities within the body Contains cells that are closely joined Connective Tissue (Fig. 40.5, know in detail!) Functions mainly to bind and support other tissues Contains sparsely packed cells scattered throughout an extracellular matrix Muscle & Nervous Tissue (Fig. 40.5, know in detail!) Muscle tissue Is composed of long cells called muscle fibers capable of contracting in response to nerve signals Is divided in the vertebrate body into three types: skeletal , cardiac , and smooth
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Biology - Week 4 Notes - Biology 2108 Summer 2008 Dr Davis...

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