Chapter 10: Concepts of Emergency and Disaster Preparedness Types of Disasters Disaster – an event in which illness or injuries exceed resource capabilities of a health care facility or community because of destruction or devastation Internal disaster – any event inside a health care facility or campus that could endanger the safety of pts or staff (event creates a need for evacuation or relocation) o Ex: fire, explosions, loss of critical utilities, and violence o Most important outcome: maintain pt, staff and visitor safety External disaster – any event outside the health care facility or campus, somewhere in the community, which requires activation of the facility’s emergency management plan o Natural: hurricane, earthquake or tornado o Technologic: an act of terrorism with explosive devices or a malfunction of a nuclear reactor w/ radiation exposure Multi-casualty event – managed by a hospital using local resources Mass casualty event – overwhelms the local medical capabilities and may require the collaboration of multiple agencies and health care facilities to handle the crisis Nurse’s Role in Responding to Health Care Facility Fires o Remove any pts or staff from immediate danger of the fire or smoke o DC oxygen for all pts who can breathe without it o For pts on life support, maintain their respiratory status manually until they are removed from the fire area o Direct ambulatory pts to walk to a safe location o If possible, ask ambulatory pts to help push wheelchair pts out of danger o Move bedridden pts from the fire area in bed, by stretcher or in a wheel chair, if needed have one or two staff members move pts on blankets or carry them o After everyone is out of danger, seek to contain the fire by closing doors and windows and using an ABC extinguisher, if possible o Do not risk injury to you or staff members while moving pts or attempting to extinguish fire Impact of External Disasters
Pandemic – an infection or disease that occurs throughout the population of a country or the world that leads a vast number of people to seek medical care, even the “worried well” who want evaluation, preventative treatment or reassurance from a health care provider Emergency preparedness – goal of all mass casualty events; effectively meeting the extraordinary need for resources such as: hospital beds, staff, drugs, PPE, supplies and medical devices Emergency Preparedness and Response Mass Casualty Triage o Key process in any multi-casualty or mass casualty response is effective triage to rapidly sort ill or injured pts into priority categories based on their acuity and survival potential o Triage Under Mass Casualty Conditions Emergent (RED TAG) – Class I; immediate threat to life
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- Winter '16
- Community Emergency Response Team, mass casualty