119150E - Volume II History of Humanity Volume III From the Seventh Century B.C to the Seventh Century A.D History of Humanity From the Third Millennium

119150E - Volume II History of Humanity Volume III From the...

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Unformatted text preview: Volume II History of Humanity Volume III From the Seventh Century B.C. to the Seventh Century A.D. History of Humanity From the Third Millennium to the Seventh Century B.C. Edited by A. H. Dani and J.-P. Mohen Co-edited by J. L. Lorenzo, V. M. Masson, T. Obenga, M. B. Sakellariou, B. K. Thapar and Zhang Changshou ISBN 978-92-3-102811-3 Tables of Contents CONTENTS Contents List of Figures 13 List of Maps 21 List of Plates 23 PREFACE 41 GENERAL INTRODUCTION 57 THE INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION for the New Edition of the History of the Scientific and Cultural Development of Mankind 60 THE CONTRIBUTORS 62 INTRODUCTION 69 PREHISTORY TO HISTORY 70 NOTE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 MAIN TRENDS OF THE NEW PERIOD 77 TRADITIONS AND INNOVATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 TRANSFORMATION INTO A NEW ORDER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 THEMATIC SECTION 93 I TECHNICAL ASPECTS 94 COPPER AND BRONZE METALLURGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 1 Edited: 1996 Copyrights ISBN 978-92-3-102811-3 2 Tables of Contents CONTENTS THE DEVELOPMENT OF GOLD-WORKING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 IRON WORKING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 OTHER SPECIALIZED CRAFTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 TRANSPORT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 TECHNIQUES, WEIGHTS AND MEASURES AND WRITING . . . . . . 111 FROM EMPIRICAL TO SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE 112 FROM EMPIRICAL KNOWLEDGE TO THE BEGINNINGS OF SCIEN- 3 4 5 TIFIC THOUGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 THE MEASUREMENT OF TIME AND THE ESTABLISHMENT OF CALENDARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 ECONOMIC AND SOCIO-POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS 126 THE LATE BRONZE AGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 EVOLUTIONARY TRENDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 THE EARLY IRON AGE: CRISIS AND NEW STRUCTURES . . . . . . . 135 THE IMPACT OF THE EMPIRES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 SEDENTARY AGRICULTURAL AND NOMADIC PASTORAL POPULATIONS (3000–700 BC) 142 THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE WORLD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 THE NEW WORLD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 THE EASTERN OLD WORLD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 THE WESTERN OLD WORLD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 THE CENTRAL OLD WORLD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 CONCLUSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 FROM STATE TO EMPIRE 158 STATES AROUND THE WORLD (excluding mesopotamia) . . . . . . . 160 FUNDAMENTAL STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE STATE IN 6 MESOPOTAMIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 THE EARLY DYNASTIC PERIOD IN MESOPOTAMIA . . . . . . . . . . 168 THE FORMATION OF TERRITORIAL STATES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 THE FIRST EMPIRES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 THE DEVELOPMENT OF LONG-DISTANCE TRADE AND THE EMERGENCE OF A MERCHANT CLASS 177 2 Edited: 1996 Copyrights ISBN 978-92-3-102811-3 7 8 Tables of Contents CONTENTS THE BEGINNING OF THE IRON AGE: INVENTION OF IRONWORK AND ITS CONSEQUENCES 190 THE INTRODUCTION OF IRON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 THE STRENGTHENING OF MILITARY POWER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 THE STATES AND THE CONTROL OF STRATEGIC RESOURCES . . . . 201 THE DAWN OF WRITING AND THE PRINCIPAL LINGUISTIC FAMILIES 205 FROM THE ORIGINS OF WRITING TO THE ALPHABET . . . . . . . . . 206 REPRESENTATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 THE SIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 WRITING: A SYSTEM OF REPRESENTATION AND COMMUNICATION 211 THE ALPHABET AND OTHER MODERN TYPES OF WRITING . . . . . 214 ORTHOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 THE MOST ANCIENT LANGUAGES REVEALED BY WRITING . . . . . 217 THE EGYPTIAN LANGUAGE (MAP 3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 OTHER AFRICAN AND ANCIENT AMERICAN LANGUAGES (MAP 3) . 223 SEMITIC LANGUAGES (MAP 4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 CHINESE LANGUAGES (MAP 3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 THE INDO-EUROPEAN PHENOMENON: LINGUISTICS AND ARCHAE- 9 OLOGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 THE HOMELAND PROBLEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 WHEN WAS PROTO-INDO-EUROPEAN SPOKEN? . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 LINGUISTIC APPROACHES TO THE HOMELAND . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 THE CULTURE OF THE PROTO-INDO-EUROPEANS . . . . . . . . . . . 251 ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 CURRENT HOMELAND SOLUTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 ORAL TRADITIONS AND LITERATURE, RELIGION AND ART 266 ORAL TRADITIONS AND LITERATURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 THE ORAL TRADITION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 ORAL TRADITION AND RELIGIOUS PRACTICES . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 ORAL TRADITION AND RHETORIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271 ORAL TRADITION, RITES AND THE THEATRE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 THE ORAL ORIGIN OF THE GREAT WRITTEN SOURCES . . . . . . . . 273 WRITING AND LITERATURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 LITERATURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 3 Edited: 1996 Copyrights ISBN 978-92-3-102811-3 Tables of Contents CONTENTS WRITING AND LITERARY FORMS OF KNOWLEDGE . . . . . . . . . . 279 RELIGION AND ART . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 THE DEVELOPMENT OF RELIGION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281 OVERVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 THE SUMERIAN AND BABYLONIAN RELIGIONS AND THEIR INFLUENCE IN THE EAST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286 THE RELIGION OF PHARAONIC EGYPT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290 THE DEVELOPMENT AND EXPANSION OF THE Indo-EuropeanRELIGIONS 295 MEDITERRANEAN RELIGIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298 CHINESE RELIGION IN THE BRONZE AGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 CONCLUSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301 ART AND ARCHITECTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 WIDELY SPREAD TRADITIONAL ARTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303 MONUMENTAL ARCHITECTURE AND ART PIECES, THE PRINCIPAL EXPRESSION OF GREAT STATES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306 SONG, MUSIC AND DANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 REGIONAL SECTION 320 EDITOR’S NOTE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 I Regions for which written sources are available . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322 10 AFRICA 323 THE NILE VALLEY (3000–1780 bc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324 EGYPT (MAP 7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325 NUBIA (3000–1780 bc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353 The Nile Valley (1780–700bc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 EGYPT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360 THE SECOND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD (c.1784–1570 bc) . . . . . . . . 361 THE NEW KINGDOM (c. 1570–1070 bc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364 THE RAMESSIDE PERIOD (19TH AND 20TH DYNASTIES) . . . . . . . 367 THE THIRD INTERMEDIATE PERIOD (1070–656 bc) . . . . . . . . . . . 370 NUBIA AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH EGYPT (1780–700 bc) . . . . . 372 CHRONOLOGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373 A FEW DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374 NATURE OF THE EVIDENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376 THE KINGDOM OF KERMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377 4 Edited: 1996 Copyrights ISBN 978-92-3-102811-3 Tables of Contents CONTENTS 11 EUROPE 389 THE AEGEAN WORLD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391 SPACE AND TIME; REGIONS AND PERIODS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392 THE EARLY BRONZE AGE (3000–1500 bc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393 THE GREEK MAINLAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395 THE NORTH AEGEAN ISLANDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398 THE CYCLADIC ISLANDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400 CRETE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402 THE MIDDLE AND LATE BRONZE AGE (2100–1100 bc) . . . . . . . . . 405 HISTORICAL SURVEY: ECONOMY, SOCIETY AND THE STATE (MAP 8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406 SETTLEMENT AND ARCHITECTURE, ARTS AND CRAFTS, IDEOLOGY 413 DECLINE AND RECOVERY (1100–700 bc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423 ETHNIC MOVEMENTS; DEMOGRAPHIC AND ECONOMIC DECLINE (MAP 9) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424 RECOVERY (1050–800 bc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 TRADE AND THE BEGINNINGS OF GREEK COLONIZATION . . . . . 427 DEVELOPMENT OF LONG-DISTANCE TRADE LINKS; TECHNICAL PROGRESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428 LAND TENURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 BEGINNINGS OF THE CITY AND OTHER TYPES OF STATE . . . . . . 430 THE FIGURATIVE ARTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432 ARCHITECTURE, TOWN-PLANNING, WALLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434 RELIGION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435 ALPHABETIC WRITING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436 POETRY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437 DIVERSIFYING AND UNIFYING TRENDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439 ATHLETIC CONTESTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440 NATIONAL CONSCIOUSNESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441 CYPRUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442 FROM c. 3000 bc TO c. 1900 bc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443 FROM c. 1900 bc TO c. 1600 bc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445 FROM c. 1600 bc TO c. 1050 bc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446 FROM c. 1050 bc TO c. 700 bc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448 12 ASIA 449 5 Edited: 1996 Copyrights ISBN 978-92-3-102811-3 Tables of Contents CONTENTS EDITOR’S NOTE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452 MESOPOTAMIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453 THE TIGRIS AND EUPHRATES VALLEY (3000–1500 bc) . . . . . . . . . 454 THIRD MILLENNIUM POLITICAL HISTORY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456 INSTITUTIONAL LANDSCAPE OF THE THIRD MILLENNIUM . . . . . 458 POLITICAL ECONOMY OF THE THIRD MILLENNIUM . . . . . . . . . 466 THE OLD BABYLONIAN PERIOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472 CONCLUSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477 THE KASSITE PERIOD 1500–700 bc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478 THE KASSITE PERIOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479 THE POST-KASSITE PERIOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487 THE ASSYRIAN EMPIRE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490 SYRIA AND PALESTINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499 THE EARLY AND MIDDLE BRONZE AGE (3000–1600 bc) . . . . . . . . 500 THE EARLY BRONZE AGE (third millennium bc) . . . . . . . . . . . . 502 MIDDLE BRONZE AGE (2000–1600 bc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507 THE LATE BRONZE AGE AND THE EARLY IRON AGE (1600–700 bc) . 514 THE LATE BRONZE AGE (c. 1600–1200 bc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515 THE EARLY IRON AGE (1200–800 bc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522 ANATOLIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 529 THE EARLY BRONZE AGE (3000–2500 bc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 530 THE MIDDLE BRONZE AGE (2500–1800 bc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 537 THE LATE BRONZE AGE (1800–1200 bc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 551 THE IRON AGE (1180–750 bc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 567 IRAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 571 THE PERIOD OF STATE FORMATION (c. 3700–3000 bc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 572 THE EARLY STATES (c. 3000–2150 bc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 574 THE SHIMASHKI AND SUKKALMAH DYNASTIES (c. 2150–1500 bc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 579 THE PERIOD OF TRANSFORMATION (c. 1650–1450 bc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 582 THE IRON AGE I PERIOD (c. 1450–1100 bc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 585 THE IRON AGE II PERIOD (c. 1100–800 bc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 588 THE IRON AGE III PERIOD (c. 800–550 bc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 590 AFGHANISTAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 593 6 Edited: 1996 Copyrights ISBN 978-92-3-102811-3 Tables of Contents CONTENTS BRONZE AGE ANTECEDENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 595 THE EARLY BRONZE AGE (c. 3000–1800 bc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 597 THE SECOND MILLENNIUM bc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 603 SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 604 THE ARABIAN PENINSULA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 605 ‘NEOLITHIC’ FOUNDATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 607 THE EMERGING BRONZE AGE (3000–2400 bc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 610 BRONZE AGE FLORESCENCE (2400–1800 bc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 613 THE LATER BRONZE AGE (1800–1200 bc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 616 THE IRON AGE (1200–400 bc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 618 THE INDUS VALLEY (3000–1500 bc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 624 GENERAL BACKGROUND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625 DISTRIBUTION (Map 14) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 627 SETTLEMENT PATTERN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 629 CLIMATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 633 ORIGIN AND GROWTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 635 THE PROTO-URBAN AND PRE-LITERATE CULTURES . . . . . . . . . . 638 THE MATURE HARAPPAN CULTURE: FORM AND CONTENT . . . . . 646 THE ECONOMY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 653 trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 654 WEIGHTS AND MEASURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 657 ARTS AND CRAFTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 658 THE INDUS SCRIPT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 662 RELIGION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 663 BURIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 665 DATING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 668 DECLINE AND AFTERMATH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 671 THE POST-INDUS CULTURES (1500–700 bc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 673 ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 674 LITERARY EVIDENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 697 CHINA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 702 CHINA (3000–1600 bc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 703 THE HUANGHE VALLEY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 704 CONTEMPORARY CULTURES IN OTHER PARTS OF CHINA . . . . . . 719 SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 723 CHINA (1600–700 bc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 725 7 Edited: 1996 Copyrights ISBN 978-92-3-102811-3 Tables of Contents CONTENTS THE SHANG DYNASTY (1600–1027 bc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 726 THE WESTERN ZHOU DYNASTY (1027–771 bc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 733 PERIPHERAL BRONZE CULTURES IN THE SHANG AND WESTERN ZHOU PERIOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 740 II Regions for which only archaeological and anthropological sources are available . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 AFRICA, EXCLUDING THE NILE VALLEY 743 745 REGIONAL SURVEY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 749 THEMATIC DISCUSSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 775 CONCLUSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 789 14 EUROPE 790 EDITOR’S NOTE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 792 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 793 ENVIRONMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 796 COMMUNICATIONS AND TRADE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 814 SOCIO-POLITICAL FEATURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 817 SOUTHERN EUROPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 819 THE THIRD MILLENNIUM BC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 820 THE BRONZE AGE IN SOUTH-WEST EUROPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 835 THE EARLY IRON AGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 837 SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 845 THE EARLY BRONZE AGE (3200–2000/1900 bc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 846 THE MIDDLE BRONZE AGE (2000/1900–1600/1500 bc) . . . . . . . . . . 850 THE LATE BRONZE AGE (1600/1500–1200/1150 bc) . . . . . . . . . . . . 851 THE END OF THE BRONZE AGE (1200/1500–950/900 bc) . . . . . . . . . 856 THE EARLY IRON AGE (950/900–700 bc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 858 CENTRAL EUROPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˇ THE OTOMANI/FÜZESABONY-ÜNÄTTICE PERIOD . . . . . . . . . . . 859 THE TUMULUS PERIOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 871 THE URNFIELD PERIOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 873 EASTERN 867 EUROPE (Fourth millennium to seventh century bc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 875 THE EARLY BRONZE AGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 878 THE MIDDLE BRONZE AGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 882 THE LATE BRONZE AGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 885 8 Edited: 1996 Copyrights ISBN 978-92-3-102811-3 Tables of Contents CONTENTS WESTERN EUROPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 890 THE ATLANTIC BRONZE AGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 891 THE EARLY BRONZE AGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 895 THE MIDDLE BRONZE AGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 899 THE LATE BRONZE AGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 904 THE END OF THE ATLANTIC BRONZE AGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 910 NORTHERN EUROPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 913 STAGE 1: 2800–2200 bc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 915 STAGE 2: 2200–1500 bc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 919 STAGE 3: 1500–1000 bc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 923 STAGE 4: 1000–700 bc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 929 RELIGION AND ART . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 934 BURIAL CUSTOMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 936 ART ON OBJECTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 938 MUSIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 939 BRONZE STATUETTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 940 ROCK ART . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....
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