mene sap 5 - CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION A Background In life...

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION A. Background In life humans are faced with any choices. To determine which choices is best to be chosen humans will make decisions. Every day, people are inundated with decisions, big and small. Understanding how people arrive at their choices is an area of cognitive psychology that has received attention. Theories have been generated to explain how people make decisions, and what types of factors influence decision making in the present and future. Heuristics have also been researched to understand the decision making process. decision- making is a key part of activities manager . Decision-making describes the process of how a series of activities have been selected as the resolution of a particular problem . The quality of decisions manager used will determine the effectiveness of the plans. Good decision-making is a vital part of good management because every decision will determine how an organization can achieve its objectives.. Goldstein and Hogarth (1997) said that decision making focuses more on the outcome in terms of a person’s actions or choices, and how these could be improved. Holzwort, discusses decision making in terms of broader research objectives, such as decision analysis research which can focus on whether people make rational decisions. When considering decision making in the context of community issues decision making research has also been used to investigate economic decisions. Because of all the importance of decision making, this paper would like to explain about the definition of decision making, process of decision making, types of decision making and manager as the decision maker. B. FORMULATION The problem discussed can be stated as follows: 1) What is the definition of Decision-Making? 2) How is the process of Decision-Making? 3) What is the types of Decision-Making? 4) How is manager as the Decision maker? C. PURPOSE From this study it is expected that : 1) It can give information to the readers about the definition of Decision-Making.
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2) Students can identify the process of Decision-Making. 3) Students can mention the types of Decision-Making. 4) Give knowledge about manager as the Decision maker. CHAPTER 2 DISCUSSION A. Literature “Every action of a manager is generally an outcome of a decision.” Owing to this fact, P.P. Drucker in his book “Practice of Management,” observes “Whatever a manager does, he does through making decision.” True, the job of management involves the making of innumerable decisions. That is why many persons think that management is decision-making.The word ‘decides’ means to come to a conclusion or resolution as to what one is expected to do at some later time. According to Manely H. Jones, “It is a solution selected after examining several alternatives chosen because the decider foresees that the course of action he selects will do more than the others to further his goals and will be accompanied by the fewest possible objectionable consequences”‘.
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