Chemical SensesMelelupe Afu PSY/345 - Matthew WillOctober 26, 2015The nose and the mouth awakens one to pleasure, danger, food and drinkin the environment. Humans can recognize, perceive and respond to tastes, odors and other chemosensory stimuli, such as carbonation and menthol. Chemical senses play a major role in our sensory world. Most people are not aware that the related senses of taste and smell actually assists us interpret the chemical world. Tastes, odors, and chemical irritants are rich sources of stimulation throughout one's life. Taste and smell are separate senses with their own receptor organs, yet they are intimately intertwined. Taste buds consists of sensory cells which detects taste and chemicals in foods. When the sensory cells are stimulated, these cells send signals to specific areas of the brain, which make us conscious of the perception of taste. Similarly, the specialized cells in the nose pick up odorants and airborne molecules. Odorants stimulate receptor proteins found on hairlike cilia at the tips of the sensory cells, a process that initiates a neural response. Ultimately, messages about taste and smell converge, allowing one to detect the flavors of food. The four basic tastes are sour, sweet, salty and bitter. All of our taste sensations can be described as a combination of these four basic tastes. The tongue contains many ridges and valleys called papillae and there are four types of papillae: Filiform papillae, Fungiform papillae, Foliate papillae and Circumvallate paella. All these papillae except filiform contain taste buds and each taste bud contains a number of taste cells. The experience of taste depends on one's internal state, past experiences and even genes, because some people have different sensitivities to certain tastes. Our sensation of taste depends extremely on smell and texture.