203exam1 - Chemistry 203 Lg (Fall 99) Exam #1 Last Name:...

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Unformatted text preview: Chemistry 203 Lg (Fall 99) Exam #1 Last Name: WW4“ S WWI/ {(2 September 28, 1999; 11:00-11:50 a.m. First Name: Prof. Charles E. McKenna Social Security # ' T.A: EDC {:2 4E; INITIAL OF LAST NAME Please do not open this exam until you are told to do So. Write legibly to avoid confusion. GOOD LUCK !! I u u v/ 9 I- » /' ’1 y ' « U\ TOTAl: 100 ‘ O I will obserire the rules of Academic integrity while taking this exam. g‘tudent Signa$ Circle the most nearly correct answ . (4 Pts.) (1) Because they must pass thro h the sto ch, oral drugs must be stable: - to bases (high pH) 00 acid (low pH) - to neutral pH. - to saliva (2) Penicillins form a class of drug usefully based on: - target system « sites of action Qhemical structure - receptor site (3) . In the prodrug aspirin, the "masking" group is: Calcetyl group A - Carboxylic group B - phenyl group C - not indicated (B) Aspirin (4) In the double-helical structure of DNA, the "bases”.lie:‘ - outside the helix, parallel to the axis of the helix - outside the helix, perpendicular to the axis of the helix - both inside and outside the helix (inside the helix, perpendicular to the axis of the helix (5) Comparing bacteria and viruses: - only viruses have cell walls [aimses are less complex - only bacteria can be targeted by the cellular immune system - vaccines exist only against viruses (6) This is a picture of: O-—-O H20 O——O H20 O——O O——O - nicotine — cell nucleus - a bipolar lipid membrane (barrier to lipophilic, non-polar drugs) (Fla/bipolar lipid membrane (barrier to polar and charged molecules) /’ . (7) CH3C(O)OH is: - methanol, a toxic alcohol (wood alcohol) @efic acid (Vinegar) - isopropanol (rubbing alcohol) - ethanol, a widely consumed alcohol (8) The compound shown is a type of: . S? NH2 fir—“NHR O - nucleotide - penicillin drug - sulfa d g v ' . — at opens a “hole” in bacterial membranes (9) Penicillin was discovered: - by random screening of many compounds - serendipitously (by accident) when a teardrop fell onto a plate of bacteria - by drug company research on a lead compound @ndipitously (by accident) when a mold grew on a plate of bacteria I (10) This structure shows: 5' end I ‘f e O=Fl’——O 0 OH ' O l T O=ll>——O 0 OH j’ c O=ll3*—O o OH j) A O=ll3-—O 0 OH hW—l 3' end - the sugar phosphate backbone of RNA Cite sugar phosphate backbone of DNA - a single purine - a single pyrimidine (11) In doque-stranded DNA, specific base pairing occurs between: - C, C — A, C — T,‘G (12) If the genetic code is based on 3-base triplet, like A-A-A, etc., the maximum total number of codes is: (Remember, there are four bases: A,T, C, and G) - 4 - 8 - 16 \ ’/7 / kW (13) “AIDS” stands for: - Acute Immune Deficiency Syndrome - Auto Immune Deficiency Syndrome @cquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome - Acquired Internal Diseases from Sexual contact (14) Infection with HIV typically results in: - immediate life-threatening disease - no onset of serious symptoms for at least 25 years - immunity to other viral infections gt flu—like symptoms, followed by latency of the firm for several years, then onset of increasingly serious opportunistic infectious until death results (15) Drug resistance by an RNA Virus is due to: - random changes in the RNA sugar (ribose) backbone @om changes in the RNA bases, altering the viral genes ' - changes in the drug structure caused by the virus - random changes in the RNA phosphate backbone (16) Since the epidemic began in the early 1980’s, in the USA, the total number of AIDS cases is about: ~ 700 — 7,000,000 (17) HIV has three important enzymes, which are potential drug targets. One enzyme, integrase: @fices viral genes into the host cell DNA - converts Viral RNA into a DNA copy and gets rid of unwanted viral RNA - synthesizes the virus “envelope” - chops nery made large viral proteins into smaller, enzymatically active fragments needed to make new virus particles ' (18) The secondary immune response (memory effect): - makes possible what we call ’being immune’ to a disease — is much faster than the primary immune response — is specific to one disease—causing organism / - (al of the above are true) Lt/ (19) HIV causes collapse of the immune system by attacking: — antigens - antibody-producing B cells — macrophages / — T4 helper cells which coordinate the immune response (20) A problem in creating an ’AIDS vaccine’ is: - attenuated virus in vaccine may revert and cause the disease - vaccine may not give long-term immunity due to virus mutation - vaccinated people are likely to test ’HIV-p'ositive’ /r~a/ll"6Tme above / L‘M (21) AIDS-linked diseases (opportunistic infections) include: — CMV retinitis (virus infection causing blindness) - pneumoCystis pneumonia - Kaposi’s sarcoma (a skin cancer) @1‘ the above (22) Concerning copyrights, trademarks and patents: - patent lasts only 1 year - a patent can be applied to a musical composition - a ng structure can be copyrighted p @dg name like Abacavir is an example of a trademark (23) A patent is: - a right to Use an invention - a license to use an invention - file same thing as a copyright @onopoly on use of an invention (24) I publish the structure of a new compound but don’t mention that it may be useful to treat HIV (AIDS) infection. I have now eliminated the possibility of: - a ue patent for this compound mposition of matter patent - a process patent for making the compound by a different method - all of the above (25) Both sulfa drugs and penicillin drugs kill bacteria by interfering with their cell wall synthesis. One approach would be for the drug to inactivate (damage) a bacterial enzyme critical for making the cell wall. This strategy is used by: a — sulfa only "1 penicillin only - oth types of drug - neither drug BONUS QUESTION! ( "O (26) Assume HIV virus part1c es 103 A in diameter (d). If an infected cell has diameter d’= 2x 10‘ A, estimate how many viruses can fit in a straight row around the cell circumference. Explain with a simple diagram. ...
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This note was uploaded on 07/22/2008 for the course CHEM 203Lxg taught by Professor Mc kenna during the Fall '07 term at USC.

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203exam1 - Chemistry 203 Lg (Fall 99) Exam #1 Last Name:...

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