HIST 422 Final Study Guide Terms Sugar and slavery – sugar (white gold) acted as an engine of the slave trade that brought millions of Africans to the Americas beginning in the 16 th century. Hannibal Slave Ship – A slave ship (part of the Atlantic slave trade) that is most remembered for its disastrous 1694 voyage. Though they tried their best to keep some 692 slaves alive during the voyage (they fed them twice, gave them each a liter of water, and an hour of exercise each day), they lost 320 slaves and 14 crew members to smallpox and dysentery during the seven-week voyage to Barbados. Chartered Companies – French and English allowed these private investing groups to develop tobacco colonies in exchange for monopoly control and annual fees. These companies provided passage to the colonies for poor Europeans who were obligated to work for three to four years as indentured servants. Dutch West Indian Company – In instrumental company in the Dutch colonization of the Americas. This company had jurisdiction in Brazil, the Americas, West Indies (the Caribbean), and in the slave trade. Plantation System (specifically sugar) – These plantations grew rapidly in the Caribbean throughout the 17 th and 18 th centuries. The work of growing and harvesting the sugar was simple, but the processing of the sugar was much more complex. Large plantations adopted efficient mills that relied on water or wind power. Though some parts of sugar agriculture had no effect on the environment, it generally lead to soil exhaustion and deforestation, along with the introduction of nonnative animals and plants that transformed the Caribbean region. Slave lives and health – Plantocracy (rule of a very small number of very rich men who owned most of the slaves and land) ruled in the Caribbean which was made up of 90% slaves. Slave efficiency on plantations was pushed by the eminent fear of force. Many women were forced to work while pregnant – often losing the baby with the heavy labor. Dysentery caused by contaminated food and water was a common killer as was the seasoning period (the time when newly arrived Slaves from Africa went through adjustment – around one third died of unfamiliar diseases.) Because of low fertility and high mortality rates, the African slave trade continued to grow.