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HW 5 INTRO - Sam Hindo Perception is the ability to see,...

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Sam HindoPerception is the ability to see, hear, or become aware of something through the senses. Top-down and bottom-up processing allow for this to happen because they work together to formaccurate judgments. Top down processing is acognitiveprocessthat starts with our thoughts, which flowdownto lower-level functions, such as the senses. This is the point at where the body perceives an external stimulus; through the use of sight, smell, hearing, taste, and touch, (Learning theories, 2016). Top-down functions processes the effects of previously-stored information on interpreting the current input. Bottom-up processing relies on external sensory input, in which tiny pieces of the sensory information are converted to form the full image of something. The major theory for these processes are that past experience and prior knowledge related to a stimulus help us make decisions. In Top-down processing, your brain is active first. Ifyou see ice cream you might wonder what kind it is, which requires knowledge of different ice cream types, which is accessed through Top-down processing. This thought leads to emotions (happy, disgusted) and then a response in the body (increased heart rate, happiness, and salivation). Bottom-up processing is simply about the process occurring in the opposite direction. First comes the response in the body (eyes see the ice cream, nose smells the caramel, stomach getting angry, face becomes anxious, head turns toward the ice cream). This leads to emotion (excitement) and the brain's cognition and direction for action (thinking 'I’ll have to buy some). Bottom-up processing starts with the body and ends in the brain. A study conducted by (Liu, 1973) involved the use of the Stroop test and how reading a word by holding it upside down can slow down the reading process. The word deck (words) has the names of the colors printed in black with five replicates for each color name. The color word deck contained 30 cards with each of the six color names printed in 5 incongruous colors. The
concrete noun deck had 30 cards with popular fruit names or animal names paired with an incongruous color (for example, banana is printed in green). Participants then placed each card face down and were told to hold the color-word deck and concrete-noun deck upside down whilenaming the color (identified as inverted color-word deck and inverted concrete-noun deck). One session included all subjects participating in six conditions, each with 20 second intervals between decks.

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Term
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bottom up processing

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