L42-Nuclear4

L42-Nuclear4 - Kinetics of nuclear decay - differential and...

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Kinetics of nuclear decay - differential and integrated rate laws, half-lives - using radioactivity for geological and archeological dating Friday lecture: REVIEW for the FINAL!
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Definition of a rate Rxn: aA -> products Rate: Rate law: Average vs instantaneous rate: dt d[A] 1 a R [] m R k A t A t t A A R i f i f ] [ ] [ ] [ dt A d t A R t ] [ ] [ 0
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Kinetics: summary of rate laws
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number of events ~ number of particles present this is a first order rxn: rate = k *N, N=the number of radioactive particles N dt dN k R N dt dN k Radioactive nuclear decay A -> products or
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N dt dN k Differential rate law ~ how rate depends on concentration t N N k 0 dt N dN 0 Can integrate it and obtain integrated rate law : t ) N ln( ) N ln( 0 k t 0 N N k e integrated rate law ~ how concentration (or number of particles) changes with time
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t ) N ln( ) N ln( 0 k t ln(N) Intercept=ln(N 0 ) Slope=-k
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Half-life 0 N 2 1 N ) 2 1 ln( t ) N N ln( 1/2 0 k k k 693 . 0 ) 2 ln( t 1/2
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Calculate number of counts per second for 2.38 g of 238 U, t 1/2 =4.51x10
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This note was uploaded on 07/22/2008 for the course CHEM 115b taught by Professor Reisler during the Spring '08 term at USC.

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L42-Nuclear4 - Kinetics of nuclear decay - differential and...

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