203e1 - Kit} Che ' try 203Lg (Fall H Exam #1 September 25,...

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Unformatted text preview: Kit} Che ' try 203Lg (Fall H Exam #1 September 25, 2001; 11:00-11:50 Professor Charles E. McKenna INITIAL OF LAST NAME Please do not open this exam until you are told to do so. Write leginy to avoid confusion. GOOD LUCK ! ! Maximum Question # Points u t Signature Circle the most nearly correct answer. (4 Pts.) (1) The human stomach has a pH value close to: - 13 - 9 - 8 C? (2) Drugs may be categorized according to: - enzyme or receptor target - medical effect - chemical structure - all of the above (3) In the prodrug aspirin, the “masking” group is: h - benzene group C - carboxylic group B - acety group A - not indicated (A) O _L£H 9 0/ lC|—" CH C ( > O (B) Aspirin (4) The structure below (next page) is a fragment of: - the sugar phosphate backbone of RNA @ phosphate backbone of DNA —‘—\\'L~_ - a single punn‘ebas‘e’“"“‘um—-* - a single pyrimidine base (5) Comparing bacteria and viruses: - both have cell walls - both have a nuclear membrane bacteria are much larger and more complex - vaccines exist only against bacteria (6) T ' ar‘ i . - helps us fight a disease for the first time W > makes possible what we call eing immune” to a disease we already had - is compete within minutes of an infection - all of the above are true (7) A problem in creating an “AIDS vaccine” is: - attenuated virus in vaccine may revert and cause the disease - vaccinated people are likely to test “HIV—positive” - vaccine ma not give long-term immunity due to virus mutation - all of the above .x The graphic above shows: -- - RNA — a drug (Amphotericin B) opening a hydrophilic “hole” (channel) in a bacterial membrane Mun at work - a sulfa drug at work (9) The original penicillin: - has very low potency - has a very narrowantibacterial spectrum (inactive vs. Gram-positive bacteria) can only be given by injection — can be given orally in tablet form (10) HIV virus is called a “retrovirus” because: - its genetic material is DNA not RNA ‘\ - its genetic RNA must be copied to DNA in infected cells (RNA->DNA; whereas normally DNA is co ied to - it enters the attacked cell “backwards” - all of the above are true (1 l) The graphic above shows binding of a drug to its target bacterial enzyme site. What is causing it to bind? - H (hydrogen)—bonding alone - “Van der Waals” (like group-like group) forces alone - ionic (+ charge, - charge attraction) bonding alone - all of the above N/ ( 12) In the reaction: CH3 CH3 \ A B HC1+ N/ } > } + C9 Where A = cocaine, - Both HCl and A are acids - A is the acid, HCl is the base - B is the e, Cl is the acid - HCl is the acid, A is the base (13) “AIDS” stands for: @fifiune Deficiency Syndrome \ - Auto WWW ome - Acquired Internal Diseases from Sexual contact - Acute Immune Deficiency Syndrome (14) Infection with HIV typically results in: - brief flu-like symptoms, followed by permanent latency of the virus and no effect on life span and well-being - immunity to other viral infections onset of serious symptoms after up to 11 years or more - immediate life-threatening disease (15) Drug resistance by a DNA virus is due to: - random changes in the DNA bases that code viral genes *- random changes in the DNA sugar (ribose) backbone that codes viral genes - random changes in the DNA phosphate backbone that codes viral genes — changes in the drug structure caused by the virus that code viral genes (16) Over the last 1-2 years in the USA, the total number of AIDS-related cases has: - drastically declined - drastic ' - reached a plateau after dropping since about 1993-94 - reached a plateau after increasing sharply since about 1993—94 (17) The first US. patent was signed by: - Bill Gates — John Kennedy - Abe Lincoln Geore Washington (18) To be killed by the white cells called killer T—cells (T8 leucocytes), virus-infected cells: - simply need to be nearb - have to be “tagged” by special immune s stem roteins (“antibodies” - ave to be “tagged” by special viral proteins (“antigens”) - have to be identified by red blood cells "I" ~0~=~~C§3~ m (19) The dru shown no - ' — Salvarsan (first anti-syphilis dru, “606” “magic bullet") - a sulfa drug - penicillin - AZT (20) The HIV virus locates its target, a T4 helper cell in the immune system, by: - reco nizin IL- 2 a c tokine communication chemical) - recognizing a T4 cell surface receptor protein “CD4” :detecting its RNA - detecting its DNA (21) AIDS-linked diseases (opportunistic infections) do not include: - CMV retinitis (blindneSS) - Kaposi’s sarcoma, a cancer - ll \ sma pox v (22) Difference between a copyright, trademark, and patent: - patent lasts indefinite] - a patent lasts a finite number of years (e. g.17 - a trademark expires after one year - a drug name like “Viagra” is an example of a copyright (23) A patent is: - a license to use an invention - a right to copy an inventiu - a monopoly on use of an invention - all of the above (24) I publish the We of a new drug human: mention that it can be used “to cure AIDS”. I have now eliminated the possibility of: - a use patent for this - ose — a process patent for making the compound - any patent whatsoever (25) Examples of techniques for discovering new antibiotic or anti-viral drugs include: - random screening of many compounds — small structural changes in a “lead” compound - serendipity (chance discovery) - all of the aove l \ BONUS QUESTION! (total + 4 points) (26) Ozone, an atmospheric gas which protects us from skin cancer but which also is a component of LA. smog, has the chemical formula 0,. The atomic weight of oxygen = 16 daltons, and Avogadro’s number = 6 X 1023 atoms/mole. (a) Compute the weight in grams of 1 molecule of ozone. 3 X”, —_ 48W (WW4) 14823 x/ WW M “Msz = yx/Sizzg/MM (b) If 0.5 x 10'3 mole of ozone is dissolved in 0.5 liters of water, what will the molar (M) ozone concentration be? . . c3 : -.- 6y/z) ...
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This note was uploaded on 07/22/2008 for the course CHEM 203Lxg taught by Professor Mc kenna during the Fall '07 term at USC.

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203e1 - Kit} Che ' try 203Lg (Fall H Exam #1 September 25,...

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