BBH 239 Chapter 5 notes - Chapter 5 Peer Groups Cliques&...

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Chapter 5: Peer Groups, Cliques & Crowds  Friends and Peers  - Age-graded society  Arrangement that encourages the development and maintenance of age-segre- gated peer groups  Increase importance on peers and friends  - Peers have a powerful influence Parents are preferred for issues related to education and future occupation, but for  more personal issues, friends are preferred  Reliance of friends for intimacy and companionship  Is there a separate youth culture?  - Some believe age segregation has led to separate youth culture  Negative affects on adolescents  Young people maintain attitudes/values different from the rest of society  - Others believe that industrialization and modernization has made peer groups more  important  Adults alone no longer adequately prepare youth for the future  Peer groups are vital socializing agents  Changes in Peer Relationships During Adolescents  - Increase in time spent with peers 
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More than 50% of waking hours  Only 15% of waking hrs are with adults  - Choice of friendships  Shared activities vs. Intimacy  - Pool of friends  Larger in adolescence  - Less adult supervision  - Greater contact with the opposite sex  Middle adolescence more common  - Emergence of larger collectives of peers or crowds  Cliques  Provide the main social context in which adolescents interact with each other - Characteristics Are small groups based on interaction  Averages 5-6  - Defined by common likes and dislikes  Peer similarity in cliques 
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- Demographic characteristics " Age,  - Same age, SES, race, sex - Three factors are important for determining clique membership: - Orientation toward school  - Orientation toward the teen culture  - Involvement in antisocial activity  Cliques & Friendship Structure  - Clique members  Most of their interaction are with small groups of people (clique) - Liaisons Interact with 2 or more adolescents who are members of cliques but who are not of a clique (not part of any cliques)  - Isolates  Have few or no links to others in network  Study Found: - Fewer than half of adolescents were clique members  - Girls more likely members  - Boys more likely isolates  - Social position of individuals were stable over time  Those in cliques were most likely to be members of some clique a yr later (and the  same for liaisons & isolates) 
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Adolescents and their cliques: Similarities among them - Selection or Socialization? Which comes first:  Joining a clique because of their interests or traits (selection)?
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