Chapter 9 SG

Chapter 9 SG - Localized Electron Model and Molecular...

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Localized Electron Model and Molecular Orbital Theory More Concepts in Bonding Chapter 9 in Zumdahl Bonding takes place through valence orbitals. Sometimes the valence orbitals are not in a very good physical arrangement to form bonds. Consider methane, CH 4 , draw the Lewis structure. The electron configuration on Carbon is 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 . The valence orbitals are the 2s and 2p orbitals because they are the furthest from the nucleus. If we look at their spatial arrangement it looks like: However we need to get four hydrogens in there with their 1s valence orbitals and get as much space in between them as possible; the easiest way to do this is to take the four valence orbitals on the carbon and form what we call hybrid orbitals. In this case we are taking one s orbital and three p orbitals to form four sp 3 orbitals. The best way to look at this is to consider how many things are bound to the central atom and see how many orbitals are needed to attach all of these atoms. In this case there are four things that are bound to the central atom and so we need four hybrid orbitals. What about ammonia? NH 3 , what is the hybridization on the nitrogen? There are four things bound to the nitrogen so there will be three hybrid orbitals: sp 3 you always take the s orbital and add as many p orbitals as you need to make the number of hybrid orbitals. Let’s look at something containing multiple bonds, such as C
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Chapter 9 SG - Localized Electron Model and Molecular...

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