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Essay QuestionsI.Criticize the statement, "Eric has high values, and John has no values." We all have such diverse backgrounds and have had such unique experiences. These experiences shape our values and belief systems. There is a wide variety of cultural and religiousexperiences, and even within those groups- a variety of unique individual experiences. In the context of sexuality, we assign value to sexual behavior and frame different actions and ideologies as negative, positive or neutral. This is ourperspective on sexuality, through our own cultural lens. It’s not only incorrect but entirely narcissistic to assume that our ideas are the correct ones and that everybody everywhere should conform to what we believe. Nobody has “novalues,” it’s not possible. Everybody has values; they’re just not always the same as our own.II.Citing information from the text, The Berdache Spirit, and "China's Sex Shops," discuss Chinese, Native American, and Islamic views of sexuality. Include a discussion of how ideas have changed over time. 1.Chinese views1.China, like most ancient cultures, has a history rich in erotic art and literature. Taoism, a religion practiced in china as early as the second century BCE, was not only accepting of but promoted sexual activity. Taoists believed that sexuality was important for spiritual growth and helped bond partners energies. These energies are called yin, and yang for women and men respectively. Yin energy was thought to be created by female orgasm and Yang energy was thought to be conserved when men ejaculated infrequently. (I wonder which woman made that one up!) 2.Around 1000 CE Taoist attitudes fell to the more conservative ideas of Confucianism. The text, interestingly, does not mention Buddhism, save once in a discussion of tantric sex. This could be because, besides the (contested as misinterpreted) tantric sex writings, Buddhism actually says very little about sexuality. 3.Conservative Confucian ideas on sexuality gave way to communist ideas following their victory in 1949. Communism strongly rejects all things “unproductive” or “western” so it’s no surprise that ideas condemning public displays of affection and procreation were able to flourish. 4.With globalization and the advent of the modern age the Chinese government has since eased control over individual lifestyle choices. This is a positive shift in my opinion, but has a negative side too as the text notes the lack of sexual education among the population. This misinformation and ignorance has allowed sexually transmitted diseases and instances of unwanted pregnancy to grow in china. 2.Native American views1.The text had little to no information about Native American views on sexuality. The Berdache Spirit, centered around native American views on sexuality
though, and was extremely interesting to me. I consider myself decently well-read, so it was interesting to me that when I went to discuss the Berdache with my parents they had already heard of them. The Berdache is a group that derivesits name from the Persian work “Bardaj.” I giggled a bit upon hearing the words