L11_equil1_115b_08

L11_equil1_115b_08 - L11 Equilibrium Chapter 14(except 14.3...

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L11. Equilibrium: Chapter 14 (except 14.3, 14.7 and 14.8) How far would a rxn go? What determines the extent of a rxn, i.e., the rxn yield? How can we increase the rxn yield? We'll come back to 14.3 and 14.7 later. Special Research Topic: Observing single molecules
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Exothermic --> E a (forward) < E a (backward) -> k 1 > k -1 Forward rxn: R f = k 1 [CH 3 Br][Cl - ] Backward rxn: R b = k -1 [CH 3 Cl][Br - ] At equilibrium: R f = R b k 1 [CH 3 Br] eq [Cl - ] eq =k -1 [CH 3 Cl] eq [Br - ] eq E Rxn coordinate const K k k Cl Br CH Br Cl CH eq eq eq eq = = = 1 1 3 3 ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ Consider a reversible elementary rxns: k 1 , k -1 CH 3 Br + Cl - CH 3 Cl + Br - CH 3 Br +Cl - CH 3 Cl + Br - E a f E a b
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Case 1: K > 1 [A] < [B] -> more products E Rxn coordinate const K k k A B eq eq = = = 1 1 ] [ ] [ A B k 1 , k -1 E Rxn coordinate Case 2: K < 1 [A] > [B] -> more reactants E Rxn coordinate Case 3: K=1 [A] = [B] -> equal mixture The lower E a is the larger the fraction of reactants that can react
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A regular lab report includes: • Page 1: Title page • Page 2: Abstract •Section 3: Results • Section 4: Discussion • Section 5: Conclusion Abbreviated Lab Reports 2. A sample of the long, formal web report is on the lab web site. 3. In next lab, the Ocean Optics systems of labs 1 and 2 will be used again; NOT the Measurement Spectrometer Only one lab requires a formal lab report Does not need sections 1 of 2 of formal report
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All concentrations and pressures – EQUILIBRIUM values Empirical (but will be justified by thermodynamics later) Valid for ANY reaction (not only for elementary reactions) Dynamical equilibrium: reactions take place all the time dD cC bB aA + + b a d c B A D C K ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ = Law of Mass Action:
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This note was uploaded on 07/22/2008 for the course CHEM 115b taught by Professor Reisler during the Spring '08 term at USC.

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L11_equil1_115b_08 - L11 Equilibrium Chapter 14(except 14.3...

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