ForExam2_08

ForExam2_08 - Exam 2 Ch 20.1 20.5 14.1 14.2 14.4 14.5 14.6...

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Exam 2: Ch. 20.1, 20.5, 14.1, 14.2, 14.4, 14.5, 14.6. 15.1, 15.2 Special topics: Femtochemistry: lecture notes 20.1, 20.5 : lecture notes and material in: http://www.atm.ch.cam.ac.uk/tour/part3.html Atmospheric chemistry and ozone hole: (troposphere and stratosphere) Greenhouse effect and global warming Need to know main reactions and chemicals! 15.1, 15.2: Definitions of acids and bases Strong and weak acids/bases and their conjugate pH/pOH calculations of strong acids/bases
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How do you control time delays that are so short? By changing the pathlength of the light and using the relationship between the speed of light, c , time, t, and distance, x : x = c t c = 3x10 8 m s -1 t = 100 fs = 10 -13 s x = 3x10 8 m s -1 x 10 -13 s = 3x10 -5 m = 0.03 mm If you want to fire the probe laser pulse in increments of 100 fs, you need to lengthen the pathlength of the light each time by 0.03 mm. Movable prisms FIR - Pump NIR - probe
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Mass Action Law: Summary - K c , K p : dimensionless - Gases: enter as pressure, in atm - Dissolved species: enter as concentration, M - Pure solids/liquids: do not appear in equations, including solvents which take part in chemical rxn (provided the solutions are dilute) - All values in the expression of K - Equilibrium values - current values - Rxn quotient b a d c c B A D C K ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ = b B a A d D c C p P P P P K = dD cC bB aA + +
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- No macroscopic changes, but constant microscopic changes - dynamic equilibrium - Does not depend on initial conditions (does not matter how we approached the equilibrium) The Java REACTION SIMULATOR: http://michele.usc.edu/java/kinetics/eqsim.htm Observe equilibrium B <-> Y k 1 =0.02, k -1 =0.005, 100 particles or reverse. (2x2)
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2BrNO --> 2NO + Br 2 Molecules should possess E >E a Where E a is the activation energy Go through activated complex or transition state
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2NO 2 N 2 O 4 + Δ E equilibrium Elementary exothermic reaction Effect of temperature where Δ E E a -1 –E a 1 = E a prd -E a rct Δ E > 0 : low T -> larger K, more products (exo) high T -> smaller K, more reactants Δ E < 0 (endo) : the reverse E Rxn coordinate E a 1 E a -1 Δ E 1 11 () 1 1 1 1 1 E a EE E aa RT
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ForExam2_08 - Exam 2 Ch 20.1 20.5 14.1 14.2 14.4 14.5 14.6...

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