100%(8)8 out of 8 people found this document helpful
This preview shows page 1 - 2 out of 3 pages.
Erik Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial DevelopmentErikson’s Theory states that, throughout life, we go through various stages during which we meet ever changing psychosocial challenges. The completion of the work of each stage—which Erikson calls a crisis—prepares us to move on to the following stage. According to this theory, if we do not resolve the crisis during any of the stages we will continue to create events throughout life which will recreate that crisis until we have done the psychosocial work necessary to resolve that crisis, or not. Hope: Trust vs. Mistrust (Infants 0 to 1 year) Psychosocial Crisis: Trust vs. Mistrust Main Question: “Is the world a trustworthy place?Virtue: Hope The first stage of Erik Erikson's theory centers around the infant's basic needs being met by the parents. The infant depends on the parents, especially the mother, for food, sustenance, and comfort. The child's relative understanding of world and society come from the parents and their interaction with the child. If the parents expose the child to warmth, regularity, and dependable affection, the infant's view of the world will be one of trust. Should the parents fail to provide a secure environment and to meet the child's basic need a sense of mistrust will result. According to Erik Erikson, the major developmental task in infancy is to learn whether or not other people, especially primary caregivers, regularly satisfy basic needs. If caregivers are consistent sources of food, comfort, and affection, an infant learns trust- that others are dependable and reliable. If they are neglectful, or perhaps even abusive, the infant instead learns mistrust- that the world is in an undependable, unpredictable, and possibly dangerous place. Will: Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt (Toddlers 2 to 3 years) Psychosocial Crisis: Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt Main Question: "Can I do things myself or must I always rely on others?" Virtue: Independence…BeingAs the child gains control over their body and motor abilities, she begin to explore her surroundings, to claim possessions, and do for herself. The parents still provide a strong base of security from which the child can venture out to assert their will. The parents' patience and encouragement helps foster autonomy in the child. Highly restrictive parents, however, are more likely to instill the child with a sense of doubt and reluctance to attempt new challenges. As they gain increased muscular coordination and mobility, toddlers become capable of satisfying some of their own needs. They begin to feed themselves, wash and dress themselves, and use the bathroom. If caregivers encourage self-sufficient behavior, toddlers develop a sense of autonomy- a sense of being able to handle many problems on their own. But if caregivers demand too much too soon, refuse to let