Social Stress Theory●·Social and biological perspective need to work together ●·What do we know about influences on mental distress that someone has? What prevents it? ●oSocial conditions people live in ●oInequality ●oSocial context! ●Stressors -> Stress -> Distress ●·What is the difference? ●oCoping ●§Psychological Resilience – needed to cope and deal with stressors ●oSome groups are more vulnerable to stressors than others ●§Example: during the recession, the working poor and blue collared class were MORE vulnerable to the effects than the rich or better class of workers in our society ●§Example: in job layoffs, women are going to be let go before men, so women are MORE vulnerable ●We're done talking about cases (bio, social, psycho); now we're talking about causal. ●Stressors (events) -> modifiers (resources) -> outcome (distress) ○In this second part (exam 2 stuff), we're not gonna just look at events from stressors, we're gonna look at social structures (under stressors) ■Social structures - social class; living conditions; and arrangement ●Terrorism: ○Terrorism is a violent and often gruesomeact intended to do physical harmto its immediate victims and psychological harm to those who witness it, in such a manner as also to inflict extreme fear, indeed terror, among those who are targeted, usually for purposes of influencing public opinion or public policy. ○Terrorist acts are those resulting or intended to result in death, torture, kidnapping, dismemberment, or harm to other vital political economic interest of a group or its members. ■The act itself can be among the most extreme examples of a traumatic event to those who experience it ○Example) 9/11 ■Massacre, horrible, but doesn't have the public policy piece ■Terrorism is meant to instill psychological harm on the witnesses and those being targeted ○U.S. State Department defines it more restrictively: ■"premeditated, politically motivatedviolence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents" ■Targets do not have weapons to defend, and they are not familiar with combat. ○Foreign terrorist organizations - more than three dozen ○Types of terrorist attacks
■Hijacking sabotage, kidnapping, detaining, bombings (suicide and others), torture and disfigurement, threats, and assassination ○Terrorist device ■Bombs, biological chemical, or nuclear weapons, military or small arms, poison, or any weapon imaginable ●2006 - about 58,000 individuals ●Social Stress Theory ○Terrorism as a social contextual stressormediated by losses: ■Physical ■More vulnerableareas: urban areas, train stations, crowded places where many people are located.
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