History 121 final study guide - History 121 Final Exam...

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History 121: Final Exam Study Guide AIM: Native American civil-rights activist organization, founded in 1968 to encourage self-determination among Native Americans and to establish international recognition of their treaty rights. In 1972, members of AIM briefly took over the headquarters of the Bureau of Indian Affairs in Washington, D.C. They complained that the government had created the tribal councils on reservations in 1934 as a way of perpetuating paternalistic control over Native American development.Betty Friedan/ The Feminine Mystique Betty Friedan wrote The Feminine Mystique to shed light on the plight of the American woman during the 1950s and 60s. She argued that an idealized image of domestic womanhood had created an identity crisis among American women. Extremely controversial at the time, The Feminine Mystique is often credited with inciting the second wave feminist movement. Through interviews with American housewives, Friedan discovers that many of them suffer from a pervasive and unexplained sense of dissatisfaction; she dubs this feeling “the problem that has no name.” Friedan traces the return of women to the domestic life after their pre-war emancipation. She argues that women were socially pressured into becoming homemakers by the “feminine mystique”: an idealized image of domestic femininity that arose in the 1950s. The feminine mystique was reinforced through education, popular media, and academic theories. Meanwhile, it was exploited by advertisers looking to sell products to unhappy housewives. Friedan concludes that the life of a housewife prevents women from developing full, autonomous identities. She argues that both men and women must reject the feminine mystique, and she encourages women to pursue self-fulfillment through education.
Black Power Movement By the late 1960s Black Power came to represent the demand for more immediate violent action to counter American white supremacy. Most of these ideas were influenced by Malcolm X's criticism of Martin Luther King, Jr.'s peaceful protest methods. The 1965 assassination of Malcolm X coupled with the urban uprisings of 1964 and 1965 ignited the Black Power movement. By 1968 Black Power was a recognizable movement with a growing force of people who sympathize. New organizations began to form such as the Black Panther Party each supporting Black Power philosophies ranging from socialism to black nationalism.[6] Brown V. The Board Of Education One of these class actions, Brown v. Board of Education was filed against the Topeka, Kansas school board by representative-plaintiff Oliver Brown, parent of one of the children denied access to Topeka's white schools. Brown claimed that Topeka's racial segregation violated the Constitution's Equal Protection Clause because the city's black and white schools were not equal to each other and never could be. The federal district court dismissed his claim, ruling that the segregated public schools were "substantially" equal enough to be constitutional under the Plessy doctrine. Brown appealed to the Supreme Court, which consolidated and then reviewed all the

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