Exam4_Review_pdf - Review Exam 4 Level 1 Growth and...

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Review: Exam 4, Level 1Growth and DevelopmentReview selected theories of human development and their respective stages (physical, cognitive, and psychosocial stages)> Freud: Psychoanalytic modelof personality development-First formal, structured theory-Believed that sexual / instinctive forcesdrive the psychological change in a child*Oral: infancy (birth - 18 months)*Anal: early childhood / toddler (18 months - 3 years)*Phallic: preschool (3 - 5 years)*Latency: childhood (6 - 12 years)*Genital: adolescence (12 - 19 years)> Erikson:Eight stagesof development-Individuals must accomplish a particular taskbefore successfully completing the stage-Each task is framed with opposing conflictssuch as trust vs. mistrust-Each stage builds on the successful attainment of the previous developmental conflict-Stages include:*Trust vs. mistrust(infancy) : ability to trust others*Autonomy vs. shame and doubt(early childhood) : self-control / independence*Initiative vs. guilt(preschool) : highly imaginative*Industry vs. inferiority(childhood) : engaged in tasks and activities*Identity vs. role confusion(adolescence) : sexual maturity; who am I?*Intimacy vs. isolation (young adulthood) : affiliation and love*Generativity vs. stagnation(adulthood) : production and care*Ego integrity vs. despair(maturity) : renunciation and wisdom> Piaget: Theory of cognitive development-Includes four periods*Sensorimotor(infancy) : progress from reflex activity to simple repetitive actions*Preoperational(early childhood, preschool) : think using symbols; egocentric*Concrete operations(childhood) : logical thinking*Formal(adolescence) : abstract thinking> Kohlberg: Moral developmenttheory-Involves the reasons that an individual makes a decision about right / wrong behaviors*Preconventional level(early childhood) : punishment - obedience orientation*Preconventional level(preschool) : premoral; instrumental orientation*Conventional level(childhood) : good-boy, nice-girl orientation*Postconventional level(adolescence) : social contract orientation> Maslow: Theory of human needs-Asserts that a hierarchy of needsmotivates human behavior*Level One : Physiological(oxygen, fluids, nutritional, body temperature, elimination, shelter, sex)*Level Two : Safety and Security(physical and psychological safety)*Level Three : Love and Belonging*Level Four : Self - Esteem*Level Five : Self - Actualization
Discuss the impact that successful and unsuccessful achievement of developmental tasks has on the ability of an individual to progress to a higher level of development.> “A critical period of development refers to a specific phase or period when the presence of a function or reasoning has its greatest effect on a specific aspect of development. For example, if a child does not walk by 20 months, there is delayed gross-motor ability, which slows exploration and manipulation of the environment. The success or failure experienced within a phase affects the child’s ability to complete the next phases.”> Each phase builds on the phase before it, much like levels in a game.

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