Chapter 3 - Chapter 3: Sociology Caelan Ho o Socialization:...

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Chapter 3: SociologyCaelan HooSocialization:It is the process by which people learn their culture. They do so by:Entering and disengaging from a succession of roles.Becoming aware of themselves as they interact with others.oRole:It is a set of expected behaviors, or the behavior expected of a person occupying aparticular position in society.oSocialization can be used to unleash an individual’s potential.oEvidence of the importance of socialization in unleashing human potential comes from astudy conducted byRene Spitz.oRene Spitzcompared children who were being raised in an orphanage with children whowere being raised in a nursing home attached to a women’s prison.oRene Spitzfound that social deprivation can lead to impaired sexual life when they havereached maturity.oSpitz’snatural experiment thus amounts to quite compelling evidence for the importance ofchildhood socialization in making us fully human.oWithout childhood socialization, most of our human potential remains undeveloped.The Crystallization of Self-Identity:oThe formation of a sense of self continues in adolescence.oAdolescence is a particularly turbulent period of rapid self-development.oMany people can remember experiences from their youth that helped crystallize theirself-identity.oMany people can remember experiences from their youth that helped crystallize theirself-identity.oThe central growth process in adolescence is to define the self through the clarificationof experience and to establish self-esteem.oThe crystallization of self-identity during adolescence is just one episode in a lifelongprocess of socialization.oThe contours of the self are formed during childhood.oSelf:A set of ideas and attitudes about who one is as an independent being.oSocialization begins soon after birth.oInfants cry, driven by elemental needs, and are gratified by food, comfort, and affection.oSince infant needs are usually satisfied immediately, they do not at first seem to be ableto distinguish themselves from their main caregivers, usually their mothers.oSocial interaction soon enables infants to begin a self-image or sense of self.oSigmund Freud:Id:Freud’s term for the pleasure-seeking component of the self.Ego:Freud’s term for the mechanism that balances the id and superego.Superego:Freud’s term for the restraining component of the self.oCharles Horton Cooley:oLooking-Glass self:Cooley’s description of the way our feelings about who we aredepend largely on how we see ourselves evaluated by others.oCooley observed that when we interact with others, they gesture and react to us.This allow us to imagine how we appear to them. We then judge how othersevaluate us.
oWe use the judgements to develop a self-concept or a set of feelings and ideasabout who we are.

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Term
Winter
Professor
JayneBaker
Tags
Sociology, Mass Media, Charles Horton Cooley, Dilemmas of Childhood and Adolescent Socialization

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