MainGroup07 - Summary Bonding Ionic Metallic Covalent...

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MJ Bojan CHEM 112 Main Group Elements CHEM 112 MJ Bojan CHEM 112 Summary Bonding – Ionic – Metallic – Covalent (network covalent) – Properties as related to bonding – Allotropes Chemistry (Reactivity) Oxidation States – Possible oxidation states – Most important – Inert pair effect – Can something be oxidized/reduced (or both)? Metal/Non Metal Behavior – Acid/base properties of oxides/hydroxides/hydrides – Connection to oxidation states
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MJ Bojan CHEM 112 Summary • Sources – Abundance – Ease of extraction Period II vs. Period III differences Periodic Trends – I.E., electronegativity, size, – Diagonal relationships – Anomalies: why?? (e.g.F 2 ) Uses Special categories – E.g. for hydrogen: isotope effect MJ Bojan CHEM 112 ACTIVE METALS (GROUPS I AND II) Group I Group II Family Alkali Metals Alkaline Earths Electronic ns 1 ns 2 Config Oxidation State +1 +2 Melting Point Low Higher Bonding Ionic Ionic (except Be) Oxides and Basic Basic (except Be) Hydroxides amphoteric Electropositive Most Yes Very Reactive Harder/Stronger React with Air, Water
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MJ Bojan CHEM 112 Sources Not found in nature as pure metals always found in combination with other elements Found as salts in ocean mineral springs, salt lakes, salt flats Pure metals obtained from electrolysis of molten salts (usually chlorides) Some Group II metals found in minerals Ca: from limestone, marble, chalk CaCO 3 Be: from beryl (Be 3 Al 2 Si 6 O 18 ) has different colors due to trace impurities. if light blue-green = aquamarine . if deep green = emerald . MJ Bojan CHEM 112 Group I Li Uses: Because of its low reduction potential, lithium is used in batteries. LiCl used as anti depressant Na USES: Important sodium compounds NaCl: abundant, cheap Important in diets, preservative Source for further chemicals NaOH, Na 2 CO 3 NaHCO 3 K Uses K is essential for plant growth Needed in fertilizers
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MJ Bojan CHEM 112 GROUP I Self-contained breathing apparatus 4KO 2 (s) + 2H 2 O(g) ! 3O 2 (g) + 4KOH KOH(s) + CO 2 (g) ! KHCO 3 This reaction is used in oxygen masks Na 2 O 2 and Li 2 O 2 can also be used to produce O 2 2Li 2 O 2 (s) + 2CO 2 (g) ! 2Li 2 CO 3 (s) + O 2 (g) MJ Bojan CHEM 112 Reactions Alkali metals react with water, producing a basic solution and hydrogen gas. Li(s) + H 2 O(l) ! LiOH(aq) + H 2 (g) Na(s) + H 2 O(l) ! NaOH(aq) + H 2 (g) K(s) + H 2 O(l) ! KOH(aq) + H 2 (g) Reactions with O 2 4Li(s) + O 2 (g) ! 2Li 2 O(s) ! 2Li + + O 2- oxide ion 2Na(s) + O 2 (g) ! Na 2 O 2 (s) ! 2Na + + O 2 2- peroxide ion K(s) + O 2 (g) ! KO 2 (s) (Rb, Cs) ! K + + O 2 " (s) superoxide ion Reactions with H 2 Produce hydrides (LiH, NaH, KH) hydrides are basic, reactive
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MJ Bojan CHEM 112 Oxidation State: 2+ cations.
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This note was uploaded on 07/23/2008 for the course CHEM 112 taught by Professor Vandersluys,lorschmid,kylem during the Fall '07 term at Penn State.

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MainGroup07 - Summary Bonding Ionic Metallic Covalent...

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