equilibrium - In chemical equilibria, forward and reverse...

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Unformatted text preview: In chemical equilibria, forward and reverse reactions occur at equal rates. A B At equilibrium, forward rate = backward rate Forward reaction A ! B Backward reaction B ! A At equilibrium, Concept of Equilbrium Concentrations of reactants and products do not change over time. Dynamic balance Reaching equilibrium may be slow ! Haber process: N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) 2NH 3 (g) Initial State : reactants only Initial state : products only Same equilibrium achieved Time "! Time "! Final State: ratio of products to reactants is the same for both! The relationship between the concentrations of products and reactants at equilibrium will be the same regardless of starting conditions. ! Catalysts do not effect equilibrium concentrations H 2 H 2 NH 3 NH 3 N 2 N 2 Review Equilibrium constant expression What is the expression for the equilibrium constant for the following reaction? 2 C(s) + O 2 (g) 2 CO(g) A. K eq = O 2 [ ] B. K eq = CO [ ] 2 O 2 [ ] C. K eq = 1 O 2 [ ] D. K eq = C [ ] O 2 [ ] CO [ ] E. K eq = C [ ] 2 O 2 [ ] CO [ ] 2 Heterogeneous Equilibria Which of the following reactions involve heterogeneous equilibria? (There is more than one correct answer.) (a) CO(g) + 2H 2 (g) CH 3 OH(g) (b) 2H 2 S(g) + 3O 2 (g) 2H 2 O(g) +2SO 2 (g) (c) NiO(s) + CO(g) Ni(s) +CO 2 (g) (d) BaSO 4 (s) Ba 2+ (aq) + SO 4 2 # (aq) Relationship between K p and K c Consider the following three reactions: 1. H 2 (g) + Cl 2 (g) 2 HCl(g) 2. C(s) + H 2 O(g) CO(g) + H 2 (g) 3. Fe 3 O 4 (s) + 4H 2 (g) 3 Fe(s) + 4H 2 O(g) For which of these would K p = K c ? A. 1 only B. 3 only C. 1 and 2 only D. 1 and 3 only E. 2 and 3 only K p = K c (RT) " n Calculations of K c At temperatures near 800 o C, steam passed over hot coke (a form of carbon obtained from coal), reacts to form CO and H 2 : C(s) + H 2 O(g) CO(g) + H 2 (g) The mixture of gases that results is an important industrial fuel called...
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This note was uploaded on 07/23/2008 for the course CHEM 112 taught by Professor Vandersluys,lorschmid,kylem during the Fall '07 term at Pennsylvania State University, University Park.

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equilibrium - In chemical equilibria, forward and reverse...

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