Liq and Solids

Liq and Solids - What is materials science? Materials...

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Chem 13 What is materials science? • Materials science includes those parts of chemistry, physics, engineering, biology, and medicine that deal with the properties of materials. • Materials science traditionally encompassed four classes of materials. – metals – ceramics – polymers – composites • Modern materials science now includes such fields as: – nanotechnology – smart sensors and biosensors – fuel cells – medical implants – semiconductors Chem 13 Penn State and Materials Research • Penn State has a rich tradition in materials research. • First school to offer a materials curriculum in 1960. • Developed the first interdisciplinary materials laboratory in 1962. • Penn State is ranked #1 in the US in expenditures for materials research, $50,000,000
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Chem 13 Penn State and Materials Research Penn State’s Materials Research Institute (MRI) is the center of materials research at PSU. 200 faculty members are associated with MRI. – 15 Academic departments – 5 colleges One of 28 Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers in the US. • 21 research centers housed at Penn State are currently working on materials research including: Center for Nanoscale Science •Particulate Materials Center •Carbon Research Center •Center for Dielectric Studies Chem 13 Materials You Know Material: Zeolites for water softening. Different amounts of zeolites in detergents depending on geographic location . Sodium Zeolite A Material: Kevlar for bullet proof vests. Polymer structure produces strong intermolecular forces for a strong material. Kevlar Ceramics (inorganic, nonmetalic solids) Polymers
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Chem 13 Materials You Know Material: Light Emitting Diodes in traffic lights. A diode is an electronic part that only allows current to flow in one direction only. LEDs are made of a combination of two semiconductors. Excitation of electrons produces a photon with the wavelength in the visible region. The chemical make up of the LED determines the wavelength (color) of the photon. Semi-conductors Chem 13 Classes of Materials SOLIDS • Metals (alloys) • Ionic • Covalent network • Molecular polymers
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Chem 13 Properties of materials Chemical Mechanical Strength, hardness, flexibility, wear resistance Electronic Conductors, semi-conductors, insulators, super conductors Magnetic Ferromagnetic, paramagnetic electromagnetic Thermal Thermal expansion Thermal conductivity Heat capacity Chem 13 Kinetic Molecular Description of Liquids and Solids gas: Kinetic energy >> intermolecular forces liquid: Kinetic energy ! intermolecular forces solid: Kinetic energy << intermolecular forces Kinetic Energy " T Heating: T # , KE # solid $ liquid $ gas
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Chem 13 States of Matter The fundamental difference between states of matter is the distance between particles.
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Liq and Solids - What is materials science? Materials...

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