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Unformatted text preview: PHONEMES AND ALLOPHONES Phonemes and allophones are two units of representation used in phonology. These are used to
capture native speakers’ knowledge about how sounds pattern in their language. PHONEME means l. The way in which sounds are stored in the mind.
2. The contrastive phonological units of a language.
3. Underlying Representation.
ALLOPHONE means... 1. The way in which sounds are pronounced.
2. The predictable variants of the Ianguage’s phonological units.
3. Surface Representation.
Contrastive sounds belong to separate phonemes and are represented on two levels. Phonemic: f I f I | l Phonetic: [ ] [ ] Phonetically distinct. but phonologically the same sounds belong to the same phoneme and are
also represented on two levels. Phonemic: f I /\ Phonetic: [ 1 [ 1 QUICK REMINDEREI bon’t forget to use I I brackets to indicate phonemes and to use [ ] brackets to indicate
alloPhones. SOLVING PHONOLOGY PROBLEMS The basic goal in solving a phonology problem is to determine if the sounds being examined
belong to the same phoneme or to separate phonemes. WHEN ALLOPHONES BELONG T0 WHEN ALLOPHONES BELONG
SEPARATE PHONEMES, THEY ARE: TO THE SAME PHONEME, THEY ARE:
1. Contrastiveldistinctive 1. Non—contrastivefrule—govemed 2. In unpredictable distribution 2. In predictable distribution 3. Easily perceived as different 3. Not easily perceived as different 4. Not necessarily phonetically similar 4. Always phonetically similar PROBLEM SOLVING FLOWCHART CHECK FOR MINIMAL Phonetic forms which vary by one sound that is in the
PAIRS same position in mm forms. and which have different
Separate Phone-mes Qumglemengg Di§tribution
CHECK FOR Sounds which never occur in
COMMENTARY the same phonetic environment.
DISTRIBUTION Where one is. the other never is.
i’ i f I N0
[1 Aliophones of the Allophones of
Same Phoneme Separate Phonemes
z‘ 2‘ i‘ 2' f f
/\ | |
[ ] [ ] i ] I ] Repeat the above for each pair of sounds you are investigating! ...
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- Winter '08