LINGUISTICS Phonemes and Allophones - PHONEMES AND...

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Unformatted text preview: PHONEMES AND ALLOPHONES Phonemes and allophones are two units of representation used in phonology. These are used to capture native speakers’ knowledge about how sounds pattern in their language. PHONEME means l. The way in which sounds are stored in the mind. 2. The contrastive phonological units of a language. 3. Underlying Representation. ALLOPHONE means... 1. The way in which sounds are pronounced. 2. The predictable variants of the Ianguage’s phonological units. 3. Surface Representation. Contrastive sounds belong to separate phonemes and are represented on two levels. Phonemic: f I f I | l Phonetic: [ ] [ ] Phonetically distinct. but phonologically the same sounds belong to the same phoneme and are also represented on two levels. Phonemic: f I /\ Phonetic: [ 1 [ 1 QUICK REMINDEREI bon’t forget to use I I brackets to indicate phonemes and to use [ ] brackets to indicate alloPhones. SOLVING PHONOLOGY PROBLEMS The basic goal in solving a phonology problem is to determine if the sounds being examined belong to the same phoneme or to separate phonemes. WHEN ALLOPHONES BELONG T0 WHEN ALLOPHONES BELONG SEPARATE PHONEMES, THEY ARE: TO THE SAME PHONEME, THEY ARE: 1. Contrastiveldistinctive 1. Non—contrastivefrule—govemed 2. In unpredictable distribution 2. In predictable distribution 3. Easily perceived as different 3. Not easily perceived as different 4. Not necessarily phonetically similar 4. Always phonetically similar PROBLEM SOLVING FLOWCHART CHECK FOR MINIMAL Phonetic forms which vary by one sound that is in the PAIRS same position in mm forms. and which have different meanings. NO Allophones of Separate Phone-mes Qumglemengg Di§tribution CHECK FOR Sounds which never occur in COMMENTARY the same phonetic environment. DISTRIBUTION Where one is. the other never is. i’ i f I N0 [1 Aliophones of the Allophones of Same Phoneme Separate Phonemes z‘ 2‘ i‘ 2' f f /\ | | [ ] [ ] i ] I ] Repeat the above for each pair of sounds you are investigating! ...
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