Syntax II - Linguistics 1AA3 Syntax II What do you see in...

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Linguistics 1AA3 Syntax II
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What do you see in this picture? 1. Describe the picture. 2. Pay attention to the words you use. 3. Do you see a woman or a girl? 4. What is the colour of her hat? 5. What is the colour of her skin? 2
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Language and thought? Language and the real world? What is the grammar of your thoughts? Is it the same grammar you use when you speak? Do all people see the world the same way? Is language a “filter” that modifies the way we seethe world? 3
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Deep Structure and Surface Structure Language provides us with means for constructing mental representation of events in the world: Verbs provide a way to organize experience in terms of actions/events (V) and their necessary and facultative (optional) participants and complements (mostly NPs and PPs but possibly also APs and AdvPs) 4 SELL WHO? TO WHOM? WHAT?
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Subcategorization of Verbs Subcategorization of Verbs: Sell : - someone who sells (Subject); e.g. Harry - something that is sold (Direct Object); e.g. his old broom - someone to whom the object is sold (Indirect Object); Ron Facultative (price; place; time, reason…) Harry sold Ron his old broom … 5
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Objects… The policeman gave me a ticket for speeding Subject Predicate ID DO Oblique ID Indirect Object DO Direct Object Verbs that require a DO (which can become the Subject in Passive are called transitive Oblique Object of a Preposition Verbs that do not allow an object are called intransitive (e.g. sleep, cry…) *The magician vanished a rabbit… 6
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Traditional PS Basic sentence structure in English: S NP VP V NP Det N Det AP N The student earns a fair wage 7
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Sentence as IP What happens in the Future Tense??? S/ IP NP I/Aux VP V NP Det N Det AP N The student will earn a fair wage 8
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The I (Inflection)/Aux node contains information about grammatical categories such as Tense or Subject/Verb Agreement. This position can be taken by Auxiliary Verbs in complex tenses or in Passive or by Modal Verbs. 9
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This note was uploaded on 07/23/2008 for the course HUMANITIES LINGUISTIC taught by Professor Thomas during the Winter '08 term at McMaster University.

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Syntax II - Linguistics 1AA3 Syntax II What do you see in...

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