Sociolinguistics reg - Sociolinguistics Core Linguistics...

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Sociolinguistics
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Core Linguistics    Interfaces… Psychology Engineering Medicine Computer science History Anthropology Sociology Cultural Studies Literature Languages CORE LINGUISTICS Phonetics Phonology Syntax Morphology Semantics Pragmatics 2
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Core Linguistics    Interfaces… Psychology Engineering Medicine Computer science History Anthropology Cultural Studies Literature Languages CORE LINGUISTICS Phonetics Phonology Syntax Morphology Semantics Pragmatics Sociology 3
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Language and society No two people speak exactly the same way. Why? What influences the way you speak (your idiolect )? - ethnic background (1 st language vs 2 nd language) - place of residence (region, urban vs rural) - age - gender - level of education - profession - situation and the addressee… Idiolect: your individual set of language varieties 4
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Speech Community Speech community – a group of people who share a set of social conventions and norms that are related to language use. When do we start to talk about different languages rather than different dialects? No clear answer… Mutual intelligibility? Italian? Chinese? Political differences? Serbo-Croatian two languages 5
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Dialects Do you speak a dialect? Yes, you do. EVERYONE speaks a dialect. World’s Englishes: English, originally spoken mainly in England. It is the first language for most people: in the Anglophone Caribbean, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the Republic of Ireland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. It is the most popular second language and as an official language throughout the world, especially in Commonwealth countries. 6
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Statistics English: Total number of speakers: 1st language: 309 – 400 mln. Second language: 199 – 1,400 mln. Overall: 0.6 – 1.8 billion Chinese: Total speakers: approx 1.3 billion (Mostly 1 st lg) Mandarin , Wu, Cantonese, Min, Xiang, Hakka, Gan Spanish: Total number of speakers: 1st language: 322 – c. 400 mln. Total: 400–500 mln. 8
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Speech varieties  Standard language (selected dialect) Sociolects Speech varieties Regional varieties (dialects, accents) Registers Gender Age Ethnicity Occupation Socioeconomic Status Casual Formal Technical Simplified Others 9
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Geographically determined: dialect Ethnically determined: ethnic dialect Social group dependent: sociolect Situation dependent: register The sum of all speech varieties of a person: idiolect Example: Doctor’s office in Hamilton, Ontario Dialect: likely standard Canadian English, Ontario Ethnic dialect: depending on the doctor’s and patient’s ethnicity Sociolect: medical language, educated, jargon Register: likely rather formal The same person will use various registers depending on the speech situation!!! 10
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Sociolinguistics reg - Sociolinguistics Core Linguistics...

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