Lecture9 copy

Lecture9 copy - Lecture#9(skeletal muscle locomotion...

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Lecture #9 (skeletal muscle: locomotion) 18/07/2008 12:20:00 I. Locomotion on land A. cost of transport force=gravity (figure 1 on handout) linear increase in O2 consumption with speed slope= cost of transport (COT) COT= VO2/speed= mL O2Kg^-1 Km^-1 “miles per gallon” what dictates the cost of running?-C.R Taylor 1. is cost related to moving your legs… o it should cost more to move more legs primate study  run on treadmill (4 and 2 limbs) no difference in oxygen consumption (VO2) o inverts- 2,4,6,8 legs o size of limbs? comparison: cheetah-slender legs + goats- heavier legs  no increased cost w/heavier legs cost of moving limbs is minor relative to some other costs o What other costs?
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penguins on a treadmill: short legs (figure 2) R. Kram- waddling  no waddling, but  foot contact time  shuffling costs  advantage to waddling if you have short legs  avoid shuffling * costs of walking/running are dictated by foot plant time o foot supporting body against gravity contracts muscles  costs ATP legs- # of legs doesn’t matter; biped vs. quadraped- same cost o heavy vs. light legs doesn’t matter 2. terrestrial tricks o elastic energy storage and release (figure 3) kangaroo (figure 4) large Achilles tendon cheetahs (figure 5 on handout) otters, mink, corgi dog short legs for body mass walk   bound (2+2) 3. Costs of walking- summary
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o exchange between kinematic and gravitational potential energy involved with moving center of mass inverted pendulum (figure 6) o acceleration and deceleration of the limbs   GAITS ARE IMPORTANT! o Frictional resistance  foot hitting ground  wind (air) resistance low amount of cost: ~7% of walking cost ~13% of  sprinting cost o elastic storage and release of energy cost of running can be predicted from the duration of support of  the body against gravity!
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