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Unformatted text preview: Derivation of the Navier-Stokes Equation (Section 9-5, engel and Cimbala) We begin with the general differential equation for conservation of linear momentum, i.e., Cauchy's equation, which is valid for any kind of fluid, Cauchy's equation: Stress tensor The problem is that the stress tensor ij needs to be written in terms of the primary unknowns in the problem in order for Cauchy's equation to be useful to us. The equations that relate ij to other variables in the problem velocity, pressure, and fluid properties are called constitutive equations. There are different constitutive equations for different kinds of fluids. Types of fluids: For Newtonian fluids, the shear stress is linearly proportional to the shear strain rate. Examples of Newtonian fluids: water, air, oil, gasoline, most other common fluids. Some examples of non-Newtonian fluids: Paint (shear thinning or pseudo-plastic) Toothpaste (Bingham plastic) Quicksand (shear thickening or dilatant). We consider only Newtonian fluids in this course. For Newtonian fluids (see text for derivation), it turns out that We have achieved our goal of writing ij in terms of pressure P, velocity components u, v , and w, and fluid viscosity . Now we plug this expression for the stress tensor ij into Cauchy's equation. The result is the famous Navier-Stokes equation, shown here for incompressible flow. Navier-Stokes equation: To solve fluid flow problems, we need both the continuity equation and the NavierStokes equation. Since it is a vector equation, the Navier-Stokes equation is usually split into three components in order to solve fluid flow problems. In Cartesian coordinates, ...
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- Fall '05