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CHAPTER 14: SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Social Psychology: scientific study of how people’s thoughts and feelings influence their behavior. Also, the influence of others behavior on people. Social Cognition: Mental Processes associated with perceptions and reactions to others Social Influences on the Self Comparing one another o Self-Concept : way one thinks of self o Self-esteem: the way or importance people think of themselves Social Comparison o Social Comparison First introduced by Leon Festinger in 1954 Social comparison is the way that people evaluate themselves relating to others o Reference Groups: a group of people one compares themselves to Often time’s people will compare themselves to someone of lesser quality of the reference group, this is called downward social comparison. Also, when people are referencing themselves to a person of higher quality, often found doing better than another this Is called upward social comparison, often used for people to strive for a goal. o Relative deprivation: belief one is not getting what they deserve First introduced by Brehm, Kassin and Fein in 2005 o Social Identity Theory o Social Identity : standard ones expectation of fulfilling a group part Social identity is apart of a self concept, to feel part of a larger whole Social Perception S ocial Perception: the way people interpret information about others, drawing conclusions (judgment) and mental representations of a person. Role of Schemas o Perception of people govern the perceptions of objects o Schemas: mental representation about people and social situation Schemas influence what people pay attention to, and they influence people on the information the gather about another, whether it is a persons beliefs or culture. First Impressions
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o Schemas about people change the first impression; they later perceive how one sees another and normally have some form of influence. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy o Rising to an expectation, this helps keep judgment about a group a people sometimes wrong assumption (i.e.: Islam people are terrorists) o Self Fulfilling Prophecy: process in which an initial impression causes one to carry a behavior to rise to the standard Explaining Behavior: Attribution Attribution: process of explaining the causes of people’s behavior, including our own Fundamental Attribution Error o Fundamental Attribution Error: bias toward behavior of others to internal factors o I.e.: incorrect answer in class and another thinks one is not intelligent, the bias is known ultimate attribution error. o
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This note was uploaded on 07/23/2008 for the course PSYC 200 taught by Professor Tombs during the Summer '08 term at Germanna.

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