review 3 - Review Exam III 1. List and briefly explain the...

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1. List and briefly explain the principles of training (physiological conditioning principles). Overload, Specificity, Individual differences, Reversibility. Overload refers to the frequency, intensity, and duration of a given training program. These must be of sufficient magnitude to elicit a response to training. Specificity refers to both the energy transfer systems and neuromuscular control. Training will only elicit changes in the energy transfer systems that are stressed (i.e. sprint training [short bouts of explosive exercise] will increase the capacity of the immediate energy systems [Creatine kinase pathway, glycolysis] but have not effect on the long term energy systems [oxidative phosphorylation, beta oxidation]). Also, the metabolic and neuromuscular gains associated with training will be specific to the muscles recruited in the activity (swimming will not make you a better runner). Individual differences refer to both the need to assign overload based on each person’s fitness levels (i.e. you would not have an untrained person and an elite marathoner perform the same training regime) and to the genetic differences in response to training (not everyone will respond to a given training program with the same level of adaptation). Reversibility refers to the plasticity of training effects, anything physiological gains made through training can be lost with detraining (cessation of training). 2. Does training alter resting ATP concentrations inside the cell? Resting intracellular ATP concentrations are not altered by training, only the ability of the energy transfer systems to maintain this concentration (5mM) is enhanced with training. 3. What gains (in regards to energy transfer) would be expected from a training program that focused on the immediate energy transfer systems (i.e. sprint training)? An enhancement of the creatine kinase pathway and glycolysis would be realized with sprint training as an increase in the intracellular concentrations of creatine phosphate and glycogen as well as enhancement of the glycolytic capacity of the muscle (increased glycolytic enzymes). What other gains would be expected from this type of training? In addition to the above, one would also expect an increase in muscle fiber size and an enhanced lactate tolerance. All of the adaptations associated with sprint training would be limited to the muscle that was being trained, there would be little adaptation in integrative systems, such as the cardiovascular system. 4. What type of training should one perform to enhance anaerobic capacity? Maximum intensity bouts of 5-10 seconds with 30-60 seconds rest would be effective at enhancing the phosphate pool while maximal bouts of 10-60 seconds with 3-5 minutes rest would be effective at enhancing the lactic acid system. It is important to receive adequate rest to ensure that a maximum intensity (i.e. maximum running velocity) could be achieved on the subsequent interval.
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This note was uploaded on 07/24/2008 for the course KIN 325K taught by Professor Dingwell during the Spring '07 term at University of Texas.

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review 3 - Review Exam III 1. List and briefly explain the...

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