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Bio Exam 2 notes - I II III IV Whatisevolution Darwin...

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2/28/2008 I. What is evolution? II. Early ideas on evolution III. Darwin IV. Adaptation What is evolution? Accumulation of inherited changes with populations over time Population o Group of individuals of one species and live in Same area At same time Evolution does not o Refer to change in one individual in its lifetime Evolution does o Refer to changes in characteristics of populations over many generations Species o Group of organisms with: Similar structure Function Behavior 2 Main Types: o Microevolution Minor evolutionary changes of populations over a few generations o Macroevolution Major evolutionary events over a long time period Formation of a new species from common ancestors Evolution.. o Links all fields o Common threads between different organisms o Practical applications: Flu vaccine development Bioremediation Drug design and development Pre‐Darwinian Ideas Aristotle(384‐322 BC) o Saw natural affinities o Arranged organisms win “scale of nature” Leonardo da Vinci (1452‐1519) o Correctly interpreted fossil rocks Carolus Linnaeus (1707‐1778) o Sweedish physician/botanist o Founder of taxonomy Naming/classifying system Genus‐species naming system
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Hierarchy of similarity Did not include evolutionary kinship Religion had a major influence on evolutionary theory Jean Baptiste de Lamark (1744‐1829) o Organisms undergo change overtime due to phenomena o Changing environments caused an organism to alter its behavior changing its shape o Discredited when Mendel’s theories rediscovered ~ 1900 o Lamark’s Theory Giraffe stretches it’s neck while eating Neck becomes longer Giraffe passes down this longer neck to its offspring Darwin Charles Darwin (1809‐1882) o Career path: medicine theology botany natural world o Embarked on HMS Beagle in 1831 5 year cruise around world to make navigation charts for Great Britain Did not publish his findings until 1859 Spent a lot of time in Galapagos Islands HMS Beagle trip o Basis for Darwin’s Theory o Evolution o Similarities between animals, plants on: Arid Galapagos Islands(volcanic) And between islands Humid South American mainland o Collected, categorized thousands of plant, animal specimens Darwin noticed o Most animals on Galapagos lived nowhere else on earth o Resembled South American species o Galapagos relatively young o Was it colonized? Influences on Darwin o Principles of Geology by Lyell Geological processes developed slowly Earth is old o Artificial selection Breeders developing many varieties of domesticated animals in few generations Chicken, dogs Plant varieties 7 food plants, same species o Thomas Mathus (1766‐1834) British economist Population growth not always desirable Population growth increases geometrically: 1‐2‐4‐8‐16 Food supply increases arithmetically:1‐2‐3‐4‐5
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