Chapter 1 - Chapter 1 Due 6:26pm on Monday*EXT To...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 1 Due: 6:26pm on Monday, January 12, 2015 *EXT* To understand how points are awarded, read the Grading Policy for this assignment. Chapter 1 Question 31 Part A The four principal ocean basins (plus an additional ocean) on Earth are the: ANSWER: Antarctic, Arctic, Indian, Pacific, and Southern Oceans. Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Southern, and Arctic Oceans. Atlantic, Arctic, Mediterranean, Southern, and Pacific Oceans. Atlantic, Antarctic, Southern, Mediterranean, and Pacific Oceans. Antarctic, Caspian, Southern, Indian, and Pacific Oceans. Chapter 1 Question 34 Part A The average depth of the world's oceans is approximately: ANSWER: 3,682 meters (12,080 feet). 840 meters (2,756 feet). 11,022 meters (36,161 feet). 2,172 meters (7,126 feet). none of the above. Chapter 1 Question 58 Part A Examine the five words and/or phrases and determine the relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Please identify the word and/or phrase that does NOT fit the pattern. Enter only the letter of the answer (caps, no period, and not the full entry) in the field below. A. Adriatic B. Black C. Caspian D. Indian E. Mediterranean ANSWER: Give It Some Thought: Air Temperature and Humidity The amount of water vapor in the air is incredibly important to atmospheric processes. Relative humidity, dew point, and saturation are all measures of the water vapor content of the air. Saturation is the maximum amount of water vapor that air at a given temperature can hold;; hotter air can hold more water vapor. Relative humidity is the percent of water vapor in the air compared to the amount of water vapor that the air could hold at saturation. The dew point is the temperature, for a given content of water vapor in the air, at which the air is saturated with water vapor. Changing the temperature or the water vapor content of the air can each affect these properties. For example, when temperatures rise, the evaporation rate also increases and affects the above measures. Part A -­ Humidity and water vapor content Refer to the accompanying table showing temperature and dew-­point temperature data for Phoenix, AZ;; Bismarck, ND;; and Tampa, FL. Use this information to determine which location each of the following statements applies to. City Dew Temperature Point Temp Phoenix, AR 96 F 45 F Tampa, FL 101 F 77 F Bismarck, 39 F ND 38 F Drag the appropriate items into their respective bins. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Now, you will investigate when the best time to water a lawn would be, based on the temperature and the relative humidity. Part B -­ Water evaporation in summer The graph below details air temperature and relative humidity changes on a typical summer day in the Midwest. What would be the best time of day to water a lawn to minimize the evaporation of water from the surface of the grass, assuming the dew-­point temperature remained constant? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: 9 AM 3 PM 6 AM 9 PM Give It Some Thought: Craters and Moons Objects traveling through space have been impacting the planets in our solar system for millennia. These collisions invariably leave some evidence behind, from microscopic cavities to large impact craters, such as those left by asteroids and comets. Impact craters are formed when a massive object traveling at a high speed impacts the surface of another object. Heat and compression waves from the energy of the impacting object distort the material on the surface of the impacted object, and the rebounded energy ejects material outward. This ejected material, known as ejecta, lands in or around the crater, often forming a rim around the crater. Craters formed by the impact of an object several kilometers in diameter can often form a peak in the center of the crater. Additionally, the material projected out of the original crater can often form smaller, secondary craters. Impact craters are one of the most obvious, and plentiful, geographical features on the Moon. Due to the absence of weathering and erosion (a result of its low atmosphere and lack of running water), impact craters on the Moon’s surface remain virtually unchanged. This relative permanence affords the ability to study the features of these impact craters. In addition, younger craters often exhibit “rays” of lightly colored ejected material radiating out from the crater. Because newer craters would cover evidence of older craters, it is possible to determine the order of crater formation by looking at which craters are on "top". Moons orbiting outside of, inside of, or between the planetary rings (like those around Saturn) may act as shepherd moons. The gravity of these shepherd moons helps to define the edges of the planetary rings by preventing debris from leaving the rings. Part A -­ The formation of an impact crater The accompanying cross-­sectional diagrams illustrate several of the main stages in the formation of an impact crater. Label the missing item in each cross-­section. Drag the appropriate labels to their respective targets. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Now, you will examine the phenomenon of impact craters more closely. Part B -­ Determining the age of impact craters Review the accompanying image. You will note that there are four primary craters, A, B, C, and D. Two secondary craters (both labeled “a”) and three rays were created from the impact that formed crater A. There is also one secondary crater (labeled “d”) associated with crater D. Using this information and your knowledge of the formation of craters, rank the four craters from oldest to youngest. Rank from oldest to youngest. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Next, let’s explore how moons and planetary rings interact with each other. Part C -­ Shepherd moons and planetary rings Review the accompanying diagram showing the shepherd moons Ophelia and Cordelia in orbit around the planet Uranus. Imagine that a large asteroid collides with Ophelia and knocks it out of the Uranian system. What would be the impact on the Epsilon ring? Select all that apply. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: The Epsilon ring would stay the same. The Epsilon ring would get wider. The Epsilon ring would expand toward Cordelia's orbit. The Epsilon ring would expand toward the space once occupied by Ophelia's orbit. Give It Some Thought: Gravitational Force, Earth’s Rotation, and the Zodiac Constellations Although others before him had postulated the existence of a force that keeps planetary bodies in their elliptical orbit instead of traveling out into space, Sir Isaac Newton (1642-­1727) was the first to devise and test a law of universal gravitation. This law states that the gravitational force (attraction) between two objects is directly proportional to their masses and inversely proportional to the distance between them. In other words, 1. As the distance between two objects increases, the gravitational force between them decreases. 2. Objects with greater mass exert greater gravitational force. Earth has two main forms of movement: rotation and revolution. Rotation refers to the spinning or turning of Earth on its axis, whereas revolution refers to the movement of Earth along a path around a particular point in space. As a result of Earth’s rotation, we experience night and day. The most commonly known method of measuring the rotation of Earth is called the mean solar day. A solar day is measured by the amount of time from one noon to the next, when the Sun is at its highest point in the sky (an average of 24 hours). The sidereal day refers to the time it takes for Earth to make a complete rotation in relation to a star other than the Sun (23 hours and 56 minutes). The solar day is longer because as Earth revolves around the Sun, its position with respect to the Sun changes, so it must rotate an additional ~4 minutes to return the Sun to its noon position. Review the figure below, and follow points X and Y as Earth rotates. Ancient studies of astrology, specifically the movements of the planets and stars, provided celestial observations that were useful for astronomical studies. The zodiac sign for a given date is the sign upon which the Sun is projected;; it is not the sign that is visible in the night sky (which is on the opposite side of Earth). As Earth revolves around the Sun, the constellation onto which the Sun projects changes. The constellation into which the Sun projects can be determined at any given time by drawing a line from Earth through the Sun into the constellations. The Sun spends approximately one month in each constellation sign. Part A -­ The strength of the gravitational force The accompanying diagram shows three asteroids: A, B, and C. Each asteroid is interacting gravitationally with the asteroid to its left. Using what you know about Newton’s law of gravitational force, complete the following sentences about the strength of the gravitational force experienced by each asteroid (A, B, and C). Assume that all of the asteroids are made up of the same materials. Match the words in the left column to the appropriate blanks in the sentences on the right. Make certain each sentence is complete before submitting your answer. Note that some terms will remain unused. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Now, let’s explore the relationship between the rotation of Earth and the length of a solar day. Part B -­ The solar day Using what you’ve learned about the solar day, what would happen if you could reverse the direction of Earth’s rotation? Select all that apply. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: The solar day would be longer. The solar day would be shorter. The solar day would no longer exist. The solar day would stay the same. Next, you will explore the constellations of the zodiac. Part C -­ The constellations of the zodiac Refer to the accompanying image to complete the following sentences. Match the words in the left column to the appropriate blanks in the sentences on the right. Make certain each sentence is complete before submitting your answer. Note that some terms will remain unused. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Chapter 1 Question 17 Part A Vikings led by Thor Heyerdahl established temporary colonies in North America. ANSWER: True False Chapter 1 Question 38 Part A The first person we are aware of who determined the circumference of the Earth using trigonometry and the angle of sunlight at Alexandria, Egypt, was: ANSWER: Pytheas. Eratosthenes. Ptolemy. Seneca. Herodotus. Chapter 1 Question 41 Part A The European "Age of Discovery" ended with: ANSWER: Phoenician exploration of the Mediterranean. Polynesian colonization of Pacific Islands. Viking voyages to North America. Ferdinand Magellan's circumnavigation of the globe. Christopher Columbus's discovery of the "New World." Chapter 1 Understanding the Concepts 1 Part A Of the following events, which occurred during the Age of Discovery in Europe? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Christopher Columbus made several trips across the Atlantic and discovered a "new world." The Vikings actively explored the North Atlantic Ocean and set up colonies in Iceland, Greenland, and North America (Vinland). John Harrison solved the "longitude problem" by inventing an accurate timepiece (watch). Ferdinand Magellan's crew completed the first circumnavigation of the globe. Captain James Cook explored the Pacific, tried to reach the "Southern Land," and searched for the fabled "northwest passage." Thor Heyerdahl sailed the balsa raft Kon Tiki to Polynesia to help establish a link of ancient peoples. Chapter 1 Question 44 Part A A tentative, testable statement about the general nature of a phenomenon is called a/an: ANSWER: law. theory. observation. hypothesis. guess. Chapter 1 Understanding the Concepts 2 Part A In science, which one of the following would be considered an observation? Select only one answer. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Waves are the result of a disturbance (release of energy) somewhere in the ocean. Waves lose little energy as they travel across the ocean. Waves are usually caused by a distant storm. Waves are seen to approach the beach at an angle. None of the above is an observation. Chapter 1 Concept Check: Question 8 Part A How are the materials that make up Earth’s interior stratified (layered) in relation to their densities? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: The lowest density materials are concentrated at Earth’s core, while higher density materials are located closer to Earth’s surface. The highest density materials make up the ocean floor and the lowest density materials make up the mountains. The lowest density materials make up the ocean floor and the highest density materials make up the mountains. The materials are homogenous (not stratified) throughout Earth’s interior. The highest density materials are concentrated at Earth’s core, while lower density materials are located closer to Earth’s Surface. Chapter 1 Question 49 Part A Oceanic crust is primarily: ANSWER: clay minerals. siltstone. granite. basalt. carbonate sedimentary rocks. Chapter 1 Understanding the Concepts 6 Part A Of the following statements about the asthenosphere, which is/are true? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: The asthenosphere and the crust are essentially the same thing. The asthenosphere is a plastic layer that extends from the base of the lithosphere to a depth of about 700 kilometers (430 miles). The asthenosphere is not considered part of the mantle. The asthenosphere is very hot and contains areas of partially molten rock. The asthenosphere consists of part crust and part mantle. The asthenosphere is composed of liquid molten rock. Chapter 1 Understanding the Concepts 9 Part A Based on the concept of isostatic adjustment, which of the following would result in the uplift of Earth's surface? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: lithosphere that was heated by hot asthenosphere lithosphere that was thickened by mountain building lithosphere that was weighed down by glacial ice lithosphere that was made to be less dense lithosphere that gets a large amount of additional mass added on top of it Oceanography Videos: Field Study Segments — Density Stratification 1 and 2 Launch the Oceanography Video – Part 1 When you have finished watching the video, answer the following questions. Part A What common household item is used in this video to demonstrate density stratification? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: a balloon a can of soda Silly Putty a candle oil and vinegar salad dressing Part B In the video, which one of the following items separates out of the mixture almost immediately once the shaking stops? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: spices vinegar oil air bubbles seawater Part C This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part D This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Part E This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Chapter 1 Question 24 Part A In general, the salinity content of ocean water has remained constant throughout the majority of Earth's history. ANSWER: True False Chapter 1 Reading Quiz Question 5 Part A Which of the following statements is supported by the nebular hypothesis regarding the formation of our solar system? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: The initial atmospheres of Earth and other planets close to the Sun were rich in ammonia and carbon dioxide. The moon is believed to have been a protoplanet that passed close to Earth and was captured by its gravitational field. The Sun became a star when its temperature and density became so great that nuclear fusion began. The Sun and the rest of the solar system were formed about one billion years ago. The solar system was formed by the expansion of a relatively small cloud of gas and space dust. Give It Some Thought: Earth’s Early Atmosphere Earth's earliest atmosphere would have been completely inhospitable to life as we know it. Constant bombardment from ultraviolet radiation would have damaged DNA, and acid rain would have killed many bacteria. To protect itself from these harsh conditions, the bacterial life present at the time stayed in the ocean. However, cyanobacteria began producing oxygen via photosynthesis, resulting in the following major changes in the atmosphere: More oxygen meant fewer harmful ultraviolet radiation rays reaching Earth’s surface. Free oxygen concentrated in the stratosphere to create ozone, which acts as a protective atmospheric layer that absorbs ultraviolet radiation. More oxygen meant less acid rain because there was a lower proportion of the gases responsible for acid rain (carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide). Without the harmful acid rain and ultraviolet radiation, life had a better chance of moving onto the continents successfully. Today, we see evidence for the dramatic increase in oxygen in banded iron formations. Oxygen reacted with iron, creating black iron oxide minerals (like hematite and magnetite). These minerals, together with reddish-­colored chert (a very fine-­ grained quartz that contained small amounts of iron), precipitated out of the water, collecting at the sea floor and creating the banded iron formations. Part A -­ Iron-­rich rocks from the Precambrian Take a look at the image showing banded iron-­rich rocks deposited during the Precambrian eon. Identify the statements below describing what these iron-­rich deposits tell us about Earth’s early atmosphere as true, false, or not enough information. Drag the appropriate items to their respective bins. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Now, let’s focus on how life was affected by the introduction of significant amounts oxygen to the atmosphere. Part B This question will be shown after you complete previous question(s). Chapter 1 Question 64 Part A Examine the five words and/or phrases and determine the relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Please identify the word and/or phrase that does NOT fit the pattern. Enter only the letter of the answer (caps, no period, and not the full entry) in the field below. A. oxygen B. water vapor C. carbon dioxide D. methane E. ammonia ANSWER: Give It Some Thought: Biodiversity and Mass Extinction Events through Geologic Time Though life existed before the Cambrian explosion, it was likely not present with the same diversity. After the Cambrian explosion, the oceans were filled with an incredible number of species. Soon, the fish that dominated in the ocean began to move onto land as amphibians. Amphibians were able to move in swampy regions and tidal pools, escaping predators and exploring new habitats. Similarly, plants began to move onto land, experiencing new difficulties in gravity and wind, but ultimately thriving and evolving into large trees. Reptiles appeared and adapted to drier climates. Then, the Great Permian Extinction occurred. The Great Permian Extinction was likely the result of global warming associated with volcanism. The warming would have allowed anaerobic bacteria to thrive, inputting large amounts of hydrogen sulfide into the atmosphere and killing off a huge percentage of species. This extinction paved the way for the dinosaurs, who thrived during the Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous periods, until the KT boundary (Cretaceous–Tertiary boundary), which occurred when a carbonaceous meteorite impacted Earth, blocking out the Sun and causing plants to die and temperatures to drop. As Earth recovered from this impact, mammals were able to take over. In the Tertiary period, mammals, birds, insects, and flowering plants thrived. Some mammals became very large, but then animals like mammoths and mastodons experienced extinction during the late Pleistocene. At the beginning of the Quaternary period, the first humans began to evolve. Part A -­ Events through geologic time that contribute...
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