Chapter 16 - Chapter 16 Due 11:58pm on Friday To understand...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 16 Due: 11:58pm on Friday, April 24, 2015 To understand how points are awarded, read the Grading Policy for this assignment. Earth Report Videos: Arctic Blues Watch the video at left, then answer the questions below. Estimated length: 22 minutes Part A Approximately how much of the world’s oil and natural gas reserves are believed to be in the arctic? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: 1/8 1/4 1/2 3/4 All of the world’s oil and natural gas reserves are in the arctic. Part B The _____ refers to the portions of Earth’s surface where water exists in solid form. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: cryosphere ocean hydrosphere biome atmosphere Part C How is positive feedback affecting the arctic? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: It is inspiring other countries to protect arctic wilderness areas. It is generating heat from oil and natural gas operations. It is causing arctic temperatures to rise faster than areas of lower latitude. It is leading to the deaths of fish and other wildlife. It is producing an increase in ice. Part D What is one result of the changing conditions in the arctic? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Fish have migrated southward in search of warmer waters. Global sea levels have lowered due to an increase in ice. Polar bears must swim farther to find food. Reindeer can find food more easily as a result of the melting ice. The size of arctic glaciers has increased. Part E Why are countries like Russia, Canada, and the United States interested in securing legal rights to the arctic? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: They want to open logging facilities. They want to access oil and natural gas found in the arctic. They want to extract gold and mineral resources. They want to open a strategic military base. They want to turn it into a wilderness reserve. Part F Who were the first people to profit from arctic waters? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: oil tycoons polar bear hunters whalers coal miners mackerel fishermen Part G What could be considered by some a positive outcome of the changing climate conditions in the arctic? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: a decrease in the amount of snow, which has uncovered arctic vegetation an increase in the amount of habitat for arctic wildlife a decrease in the number of international disagreements over arctic territory an increase in coal mining profits on the islands near the arctic increases in income for reindeer herders, as reindeer are forced to migrate south Part H Which of the following solutions would best address the threat posed to arctic wildlife as a result of drilling for oil? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Grant Russia complete rights to the waters of the arctic. Melt arctic icebergs to reduce the risk of a collision that could cause an oil spill. Relocate arctic animals to safer habitats in Canada. Create a protected area for wildlife in a small section of the arctic. Create a comprehensive arctic treaty that oil companies must obey. Part I What is an “exclusive economic zone”? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: an area of land that has significant amounts of mineral resources an area of water within which ships from other countries cannot pass a territory that has been acquired by a country through military victory a trading agreement among island nations a marine area where countries have the right to explore and extract resources Part J Why are researchers from the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland setting off explosions in an area of the arctic? You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: to ward off other countries like Russia from claiming arctic territory to try to disprove Canada’s claim to the Northwest Passage to determine whether the Lomonosov Ridge is joined to the Canadian/Greenland continental shelf to destroy icebergs, which have the potential to crash into oil pipelines and cause oil spills to determine the depth of the Ross Ice Shelf in order to calculate the amount of melting ice Chapter 16 Question 62 Part A Examine the five words and/or phrases and determine the relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Please identify the word and/or phrase that does NOT fit the pattern. Enter only the letter of the answer (caps, no period, and not the full entry) in the field below. A. anthropogenic CO2 inputs B. changes in solar input C. tectonic plate movement D. variation in the Earth's orbit E. volcanic activity ANSWER: Chapter 16 Question 64 Part A Examine the five words and/or phrases and determine the relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Please identify the word and/or phrase that does NOT fit the pattern. Enter only the letter of the answer (caps, no period, and not the full entry) in the field below. A. Antarctic and Greenland ice sheet melting B. deep ocean water thermal expansion C. melting of terrestrial glaciers and ice caps D. surface ocean water thermal expansion E. tectonic uplifting ANSWER: Give It Some Thought: Precipitation and Climate Classification Each of the five climate groups can be further classified into more descriptive climate groupings. In this way, these classifications are better able to describe the range of climate zones they encompass. Some of these more specific classifications are described below. A sixth climate type, highland climates, also exists. It is restricted to high-­elevation areas. Humid tropical Wet climate—Closest to the equator and experiences a lot of precipitation, but very little temperature variation (it is always hot). Tropical wet and dry climate—Similar temperature range to wet tropical climate, but has distinct wet and dry seasons. Movement of low-­pressure centers means that this climate often has wet, rainy summers and falls, but is dry during other parts of the year. Dry—Even if precipitation occurs in dry climates, there is more evaporation than precipitation. Arid/desert—Very dry climate with little precipitation. Semiarid/steppe—Climate surrounding the arid/desert regions;; a transition zone between the deserts and the humid regions around them. Humid middle-­latitude (mild winter) Humid subtropical climate—Located on the southeastern side of continents and has hot, humid, rainy summers and mild, cool winters. Marine west coast climate—Found on western coasts and controlled by the ocean air masses that move ashore. It is rainy and cool in the summer and mild in the winter. Dry-­summer subtropical climate—Characterized by dry summers and winters with relatively more precipitation. Humid middle-­latitude (severe winter)—Land-­controlled climate found on the eastern side of large continental bodies. Because atmospheric currents generally move from west to east, the ocean's influence does not reach them and oceanic atmosphere on their east coast moves further eastward. Humid continental climate—Has hot summers and severe winters. It has somewhat more precipitation in the summer than in the winter. Subarctic climate—Long, very cold winters and short, but relatively warm, summers. This climate has the largest temperature variations. Polar Tundra climate—Has large variation in annual temperatures. Its winters are very cold, and its summers are cool. This climate is devoid of trees. Ice cap climate—No month has an average temperature above 0°C (32°F), so the ground is perpetually covered in ice and snow. Part A -­ Monthly rainfall The accompanying table lists the monthly rainfall data (in millimeters) for three cities in Africa. Use the data in this table to determine the correct location for each city (1, 2, or 3) on the accompanying map. Be sure to consider the type of climate each city would have when making your determinations. Drag the appropriate label (City A, B, or C) to its correct location on the map (1, 2, or 3). Drag the appropriate labels to their respective targets. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Next, you will examine some interesting facts about humid continental and subarctic climates. Part B -­ Humid continental and subarctic climates Examine the accompanying map. The region in purple indicates a subarctic (Dfc) climate, and the region in blue indicates a humid continental (Dfb) climate. From what you’ve learned, these climates are generally considered to be “land controlled”;; that is, they have no marine influence. Which of the following explains why these climates are nevertheless found along the continental margins of the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans? Select all that apply. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Atmospheric circulation primarily occurs from west to east. These regions are more eastern;; therefore, they are impacted by circulation from the west. Ocean circulation pulls water away from these places, so their climates aren't affected by it. The continental bodies on which these zones are found are too large for the whole land mass to be affected by the ocean. The ocean is warmer than the continents at these locations, so it has higher air pressure. Now, you will consider how precipitation and humidity relate to the classification of polar and subarctic climates. Part C -­ Classification of polar and subarctic climates Polar and subarctic climates generally have small precipitation totals. However, these climates are classified as humid rather than dry. Which of the following explains this apparent paradox? Select all that apply. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: In these climates, the net precipitation is greater than the evaporation, even though there is little precipitation. Cold air holds more water vapor. Dry climates are only those that are always hot. In cold climates, the low temperatures mean there is little evaporation. Give It Some Thought: Earth’s Climate System and the Biosphere Our global climate is a complex system. It is affected by interactions with the hydrosphere, the biosphere, human activity, and more. Understanding all of these interactions can be difficult, but we do know the effects of some. For example, plants are known to use carbon dioxide in photosynthesis and release oxygen as a byproduct. When animals breathe, they exhale more carbon dioxide than they inhale. Animals also produce different gases when expelling other waste products, often in the form of gases such as the methane gas produced by cattle. Volcanic eruptions can release large amounts of many different gases and particulates into the air, which can block sunlight or cause warming from the increase in greenhouse gases. Although climate can be discussed on a global scale, it is often preferable to discuss it at a smaller, regional scale. The Köppen classification is one way of discussing different climates. It breaks down climate into the following five general categories: Humid tropical—Humid tropical climates are consistently warm or hot. The temperatures are above 18°C (64°F) all year. Dry—Dry climates occur when evaporation of water is greater than precipitation of water. Humid middle-­latitude (mild winter)—These regions have mild winters, with temperatures only dipping slightly below freezing, or no lower than -­3°C (27°F). They also have warm summers, with temperatures above 10°C (50°F). Humid middle-­latitude (severe winter)—These regions also have warm summers characterized by temperatures above 10°C (50°F);; however, the winters are more severe, with temperatures falling below -­3°C (27°F). Polar—Polar climates are cold all year. Even in the warmest months, the temperatures are below 10°C (50°F). Part A -­ The Köppen classification Match the names of the five principal climate groups in the Köppen classification to their descriptions. Match the words in the left column to the appropriate blanks in the sentences on the right. Make certain each sentence is complete before submitting your answer. Note that some terms will remain unused. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Next, you will examine how changes in the biosphere can lead to changes in the climate system. Part B -­ Interactions and changes in the climate system The labels below describe six interactions that occur within Earth’s climate system. The accompanying figure shows and lists in the boxes different components interacting within Earth’s climate system. Match each label with its corresponding change or interaction. Drag the appropriate labels to their respective targets. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Now, you will apply your knowledge of the best known and most widely used system for classifying the patterns of world climates: the Köppen classification. Part C -­ The relationship between the biosphere and the climate system Which of the following are ways in which the climate system is affected by the biosphere? Select all that apply. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: A prairie fire releases oxygen into the atmosphere. Methane, a greenhouse gas, is released from the digestive system of cattle. Trees take up carbon dioxide from the environment and release oxygen. Dark forests have high albedo that reflects a lot of sunlight back without absorbing it. Interactive Animation: Earth-­Sun Relations When you have finished, answer the questions. Part A Which of the following characteristics of Earth's relationship to the Sun explains the existence of Earth's seasons? Choose all that apply. ANSWER: Earth's axis always points in the same direction relative to the stars. Earth orbits around the Sun, completing one orbit each year. Earth spins on its axis, completing one rotation each day. Earth's axis is tilted relative to its orbital plane. Earth has a satellite called the Moon, which rotates around Earth. Part B What is the June solstice? ANSWER: the time of the year when Earth's geographic North Pole is leaning most directly toward the Sun the time of the year when Earth's geographic North Pole is leaning most directly away from the Sun The time of the year when Earth's geographic North and South Poles are leaning in similar ways toward the Sun Part C How does the inclination of Earth's axis change over the course of a year? ANSWER: The inclination of Earth's axis does not change. The inclination of Earth's axis becomes steeper. The inclination of Earth's axis becomes shorter. The inclination of Earth's axis becomes shallower. The inclination of Earth's axis becomes longer. Part D What is the December solstice? ANSWER: the time of the year when Earth's geographic North Pole is leaning most directly away from the Sun the time of the year when Earth's geographic North Pole is leaning most directly toward the Sun The time of the year when the Earth's geographic North and South Poles are leaning in similar ways toward the Sun. Part E When are the Sun's rays perpendicular to Earth's surface at the equator? Choose all that apply. ANSWER: March Equinox September Equinox December Solstice June Solstice Part F Where does the length of day remain the same throughout the year? ANSWER: within 10 degrees of the South Pole within 10 degrees of the North Pole at the equator at the Tropic of Cancer at the Tropic of Capricorn Part G When do all locations on Earth experience equal lengths of day and night? Choose all that apply. ANSWER: June Solstice September Equinox March Equinox December Solstice Give It Some Thought: Global Warming Global warming is an ongoing concern. The greenhouse effect, although important for creating a comfortable temperature for Earth, is increasing and can cause the average global temperature (though probably not all local temperatures) to increase along with it. It occurs because greenhouse gases, like carbon dioxide, water vapor, and even trace gases (methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons), absorb the heat radiated by Earth, preventing it from escaping into space. In other words, when energy from the Sun reaches Earth, very little of the Sun's energy is absorbed by the atmosphere. Rather, it reaches Earth, where it is then released as heat. This heat energy is absorbed by greenhouse gases and warms the atmosphere. Some atmospheric components, like aerosols, actually have a cooling effect on Earth. Aerosols are tiny liquid and solid particles that are suspended in the atmosphere. They reflect sunlight back out to space before it reaches Earth, so it never has a chance to warm the ground. Changes in Earth's climate often cause a response from other systems, which in turn affect Earth's climate. These responses to climate changes are called climate-­feedback mechanisms. There are two kinds of feedback mechanisms, positive-­feedback mechanisms and negative-­feedback mechanisms. When positive feedback occurs, the response to a climate change increases, whatever the initial forcing was. For example, if the climate cooled, more ice would form. This ice has a very high albedo and would reflect more sunlight, causing more cooling. Negative feedback is the opposite: It responds to the change by offsetting it. For example, if the climate warmed, more water would evaporate and form more clouds. These clouds have a high albedo and would reflect back more sunlight, causing cooling. There are many feedback mechanisms, and understanding them helps us understand how Earth may respond to climate variations. Review the example of a positive-­feedback mechanism in the figure below. Part A -­ The greenhouse effect Your roommate, who has not studied climate, says, “I thought the greenhouse effect was a bad thing. Isn’t it what’s causing global warming?” Which of the following statements might you use to help your roommate understand the true nature of the greenhouse effect? Select all that apply. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: When there are more greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, the greenhouse effect is stronger. Carbon dioxide is the only greenhouse gas that matters. Earth would be more livable without the greenhouse effect. Some gases, like carbon dioxide and water vapor, “trap” the heat radiated by Earth, causing warming. Now, you will investigate different factors that affect global climate and climate changes. Part B -­ Factors that influence global climate change Fill in the sentences below to explore the factors that influence global climate change. Note that one term can be placed in two different sentences. Match the words in the left column to the appropriate blanks in the sentences on the right. Make certain each sentence is complete before submitting your answer. Note that some terms may be used more than once. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Next, you will apply your knowledge of global warming. Part C -­ Making a case for global warming In a conversation with a friend, he expresses skepticism about global warning. When you inquire about his reasons, he responds by saying that the weather in that area has been the coolest he can remember. Using the information you have learned, what information could you offer to encourage your friend to reevaluate his position? Select all that apply. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: Global warming is actually only happening in some parts of the globe, so it might not be happening in that location. “Global warming” means that the average global temperature is increasing. It doesn't mean that temperatures everywhere are hotter. Weather and climate are different. Cooler weather does not mean the global climate is also cooler. He is wrong. There is no way the weather has been cooler. GraphIt!: Atmospheric CO2 and Temperature Changes Click here to complete the graphing activity. Then answer the questions. Part A -­ Question 1 Which of the following is the best statement regarding the graph of atmospheric CO2 concentrations? ANSWER: There has been negligible change in atmospheric CO2 concentrations over the past 50 years. There has been a catastrophic increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations over the past 50 years. Atmospheric CO2 concentrations have increased by more than 15% over...
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