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LECTURE 3 : MODERN AND ANCIENT GLACIERS MORPHOLOGY OF MODERN GLACIERS Glaciers can be classified according to their size, shape, and relationship with the surrounding area: Glaciers unconstrained by topography Ice caps - <50,000 km 2 ; Vatnajökull ice cap in Iceland; also in Greenland, Svalbard, Ellesmere and Baffin Islands. Domelike surface and flow mainly influences by ice topography. Ice sheets - > 50,00 km 2 ; Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets, maximum thickness is ~4.7 and 3.1 km, average velocity is ~10m yr -1 ; Also former Laurentide, Finno-Scandia, British Isles ice sheets; Domelike surface and flow influenced mainly by ice topography. Glaciers constrained by topography Highland ice fields - Columbia ice fields in Alberta and St. Elias Mountains in Alaska and Yukon; also in Swiss Alps, Norway, Andes, New Zealand, China. Develop in area with generally gentle but locally fretted topography; Flow influenced by underlying topography and drained by valley glaciers. Transection glaciers - interconnected system of valley glaciers that form web-like patterns, with ice diffluences and confluences. Develop where mountain landscapes are too dissected to support an
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This note was uploaded on 07/25/2008 for the course GLG 412 taught by Professor Larson during the Spring '08 term at Michigan State University.

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