Unformatted text preview: Nitroglycerine
4C3H5N3O9(l) 12CO2(g) + 10H2O(g) + 6N2(g) + O2(g) 1mol Nitro 29 mol gas 100 g Nitro 227 g Nitro 4mol Nitro = 3.193 mol gas Or = .110 mol O2 = .661 mol N2 = 1.10 mol H2O = 1.32 mole CO2 Nitroglycerine
4C3H5N3O9(l) 12CO2(g) + 10H2O(g) + 6N2(g) + O2(g) PV = nRT V = V = nRT/P 3.193 mol (0.082057 L atm/mol K) 425 C 698 K 1atm V = 183 L H2 + Cl2 2HCl(g)
Limiting Reactant Problem the hard way Final pressure = pressure of HCl + pressure of excess reagent
FW g of Cl2 FW g of H2 Moles H2 Moles H2 used Moles Cl2 Balanced Eq Moles HCl Balanced Eq Moles HCl Select limiting reagent Moles Cl2 Starting moles H2 Excess moles H2 Total moles of gas Moles H used 2 Moles HCl + Moles H2 xs PV = nRT P = 193 torr Understanding Gases the easy way H2 + Cl2 2HCl(g) Remember that the composition of a gas does NOT effect the pressure it exerts. So, since there is no change in the number of MOLES of gas during the reaction, there will be no change in the pressure. Thus the initial pressure equals the final pressure. Final pressure = Initial P = P Cl2 + P H2
FW g of Cl2 FW g of H2 Moles H2 Moles Cl2 PV = nRT Pressure H2 PV = nRT Pressure Cl2 Add to get Initial pressure Stoichiometry
A + g of A B C + D g of C FW Balanced Eq Moles C Molarity Volume of C Volume # grams # grams Volume Molarity of C FW Moles A Molarity Volume of A Molarity of A Molecular weight Of A Molecular weight Gas Stoichiometry
A + B C + D Pressure of A Pressure of C Balanced Eq Volume of A Volume of C (T and P/V same) PV = nRT g of A FW Molarity Volume of A Molarity of A Volume # grams # grams Moles A Balanced Eq Moles C PV = nRT FW Molarity Volume of C Volume Molarity of C g of C Gases only!!!! Molecular weight Of A Molecular weight What is RMS for H2 at room temp? 3RT u = = 2 3(8.3145 J / mol K )(298 K ) What is RMS for H2 at room temp? 3RT u = = 2 3(8.3145 J / mol K )(298 K ) What is RMS for H2 at room temp? 3RT u = = 2 3(8.3145 J / mol K )(298 K )
2.0g/mol 1kg _ 1000g = 1.92 x 103 m/s 2000 m/s 4300 mi/hr Why does it take so long to smell gas that is released in the same room? Problems involving Gases PV=nRT can be used to get moles of gas from P, V and T. Once you have mole then it is just a normal limiting reagent or stoichiometry or titration or .... Gas Law Shortcuts All revolve around the fact that in gases, V and P does NOT depend on nature of gas. Implications Caution: Shortcuts are NOT always present. Can sum moles of all products and then find P or V. (Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures.) Ratio of n:V or n:P is constant (at a given temp and P or V) So 2 moles of gas C takes up twice the volume of 1 mole of gas A at the same conditions. Polarity and IMF Polarity is the key to IMFs. Select 2 molecules involved, find polarity of each.
Polar/polar = dipole/dipole strongest Nonpolar/nonpolar = induced/induced strongest Polar / Nonpolar = dipole induceddipole strongest If dipole/dipole look for HBonding
O (F,N) N H (F,O) + Why don't oil and water mix? ...
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