Ch29_Lecture-Physiology_Homeostasis_and_Temperature_Regulation

Ch29_Lecture-Physiology_Homeostasis_and_Temperature_Regulation

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Physiology, Homeostasis, and Temperature Regulation 29
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Chapter 29 Physiology, Homeostasis, and Temperature Regulation Key Concepts 29.1 Multicellular Animals Require a Stable Internal Environment 29.2 Physiological Regulation Achieves Homeostasis of the Internal Environment 29.3 Living Systems Are Temperature-Sensitive 29.4 Animals Control Body Temperature by Altering Rates of Heat Gain and Loss 29.5 A Thermostat in the Brain Regulates Mammalian Body Temperature
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Chapter 29 Opening Question What can ground squirrels do to lower the metabolic demands of surviving through the winter?
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Concept 29.1 Multicellular Animals Require a Stable Internal Environment Homeostasis is the maintenance of stable conditions in an internal environment. Cells became specialized for maintaining the internal environment, such as temperature, pH, and ion concentration. Specialized cells evolved into tissues, organs, and physiological systems that serve specific functions. Organs are made up of tissues , which are then made up of cells.
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Concept 29.1 Multicellular Animals Require a Stable Internal Environment Organs consist of multiple tissues, and most have all four types. An organ system is a group of organs that function together. To maintain homeostasis, each organ and organ system must respond to the demands of the body’s cells.
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Concept 29.2 Physiological Regulation Achieves Homeostasis of the Internal Environment Types of information necessary for physiological systems: Set point —a reference point Feedback information —what is happening in the system Error signal —any difference between the set point and feedback information
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Concept 29.2 Physiological Regulation Achieves Homeostasis of the Internal Environment Sensory information in regulatory systems includes: Negative feedback Positive feedback Feedforward information
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Concept 29.2 Physiological Regulation Achieves Homeostasis of the Internal Environment Negative feedback: Causes effectors to counteract the influence that creates an error signal Positive feedback: Amplifies a response Increases deviation from a set point Anticipates internal changes and changes the set point.
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Concept 29.3 Living Systems Are Temperature-Sensitive Body temperature of some animals is coupled to environmental temperature.
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