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Glossary_1-7 - GLOSSARY FOR LECTURE 01 Anthropogenic Caused...

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GLOSSARY FOR LECTURE 01 Anthropogenic – Caused by humans, as air pollution. Acid Deposition – Rainfall with a pH of generally less than 5 on an annual basis because of the presence of acidic substances of nitrogen and sulfur dissolved in rainwater. Atmosphere - The gaseous envelope (air) surrounding the earth to a height of c. 1,000 km ( c. 621 mi) . Biosphere - The zone of planet earth where life naturally occurs, extending from the deep crust to the lower atmosphere. Deforestation – The set of processes of clearing a forest. Ecosystem Disruption – Disruption of a community or groups of communities and the environment that functions as an ecological unit in nature. Evolution – The pattern of development and change in a variable from one state to another. Biological evolution describes the pattern of emergence, development, and extinction of organic species through geologic time. Glacial Interglacial Cycles – Relatively cold and warm periods in time recognized during the Pleistocene Epoch during which much of the Northern Hemisphere was covered by great ice sheets. Global Warming – an increase in temperature that occurs globally (NOAA), also the process by which the Earth’s atmosphere is warming because of the release of “greenhouse gases,” such as carbon dioxide. These gases are released into the air from burning gas, oil, coal, wood, and other resources and trap heat in an action similar to that of the walls of a greenhouse (National Geographics). Hydrosphere – T he watery envelope surrounding Earth: a reservoir in Earth’s surface system. Mass Extinction – An extraordinary extinction event in which more than 25% of all extant families are lost. Ozone Depletion – Reduction of ozone (O 3 ) concentration in the ozone layer. Plate Tectonics - Theory that accounts for many observed geological phenomena that result from the movement of tectonic plates. Volcanic Eruptions - The explosion at an opening in the earth’s crust marked by molten rack and steam, usually appearing like a mountain from all the rock and ash produced.
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Solid Earth – The component of the Earth system that includes all rocks and all unconsolidated rock fragments. The core, mantle and crust make up the solid Earth. Thermal System Earth’s energy balance
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GLOSSARY FOR LECTURE 02 Big Bang Theory - The leading scientific explanation of the universe’s earliest history. The theory supposes that the universe began in an extremely hot and dense state, and that it has been expanding and cooling ever since. Core – The central portion of a celestial body; innermost layer of Earth, consisting of a solid inner core and a liquid outer core. Crust – Thin, outermost portion of Earth; outermost rocky units of Earth usually divided into two types: a thinner, oceanic (basaltic) crust and a thicker, continental (granitic) crust.
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