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S06studyguide - Spring ’06 Exam Study Guide for LBS 172...

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Spring ’06 Exam Study Guide for LBS 172 Professor: Dr. Robert LaDuca This guide covers lectures from 1/9/06 to 4/28/06 The information presented here is a composition of Dr. LaDuca’s lectures and the study guides for the previous guides for exams one through three. The author would like to thank Dr. LaDuca and the authors of the other guides for allowing him to use their information. Practice problems are provided that cover concepts from Chemical Equilibrium to Nuclear Chemistry Table of Contents Page Gases……………………………………………… 2 Liquids……………………………………………. 5 Solids……………………………………………... 6 Molecular Orbital Theory………………………… 7 Solubility………………………………………….. 10 Chemical Kinetics………………………………... 11 Chemical Equilibrium……………………………. 16 Gaseous Equilibrium……………………………… 17 Predicting Reactions……………………………… 17 Finding Concentrations at Equilibrium…………… 17 Acid-Base Chemistry……………………………… 18 Titration Curves…………………………………… 24 Solubility Equilibrium…………………………….. 26 Reduction-Oxidation Reactions…………………… 28 Electrochemistry…………………………………… 29 Thermodynamics Part II…………………………… 32 Nuclear Reactivity…………………………………. 35 Final Exam Point Breakdown……………………… 39
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Gases The hardest to see but easiest to understand Close connection between microscopic characteristics and physical properties At the molecular level: o Gas molecules are not in constant contact o Molecules move randomly o Molecule/molecule and molecule/container wall collisions are elastic At the macroscopic level: o Very low density, measured in grams per liter o Gases mix completely and evenly o Exert pressure which can be used for work o Are compressible o At STP (25°C and 1atm) the volume of a gas is 24.5L Torricelli o Invented the barometer o 1atm of pressure raises the Hg column by 760mm Hg o 1atm = 760mm Hg = 760 torr Relationship Laws o Boyle’s Law Pressure (atm) and temperature (K) have an inverse relationship Increasing temperature gives molecules more energy, which then hit the walls of the container with more force V 1 P 1 = V 2 P 2 for the same gas at two different pressures/temps o Avagadro’s Law Amount of gas (moles) and pressure are directly related The more stuff you have, the larger of a container you’ll need 2 2 1 1 n V n V = for the same has at two different volumes/amounts o Charle’s Law Temperature and Volume (L) have a direct relationship Lowering the temperature removes energy from the molecules which don’t move as fast or as far, so less space is required 2 2 1 1 T V T V = for the same gas at two different volumes/temps o The Ideal Gas Law
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