TEST 1 - Chapter 1 I Development of change that begins at...

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Chapter 1 I. Development: of change that begins at conception and continuous through the life span 1. Original Sin: born bad 2. Tabula Rasa View (Locke): ‘blanket table’ 3. Innate Goodness (Freud/Rousseau): inherently good I I. Periods 1. Prenatal: conception -> birth 2. Infancy: birth -> 12/24 months 3. Early Childhood: infancy -> 5/6 yrs (preschool) 4. Middle to Late: 6 -> 11 yrs (elementary) 5. Adolescence: 10/12 yrs -> 18/22 yrs I I I. Processes 1. Biological: changes in individual’s body 2. Cognitive: thought, intelligence, language 4. Socioemotional: relationships w/others, emotions, personality IV. Issues 1. Nature-Nurture: biological inheritance-experience 2. Continuity- Discontinuity: gradual- abrupt 3. Early-Late: early more important (infancy) than late Chapter 2 I. Scientific Method 1. Conceptualize problem 2. Collect data 3. Draw conclusions 4. Revise conclusions/ Theory I I. Theories 1. Psychoanalytic: what they do/say comes from inside 2. Freud: unconscious mind -Superego: conscious - Id: unconscious - Ego: preconscious 3. Erickson: Psychosocial [8 stages] 1. trust vs. mistrust -> mother/caregiver 2. autonomy vs. doubt -> parents 3. initiative vs. guilt -> family 4. industry vs. inferiority -> family, school, neighborhood 5. identity vs. confusion -> peer groups, school, family 1= baby 2= terrible 2s 3= preschool 4= teenager 4. Piaget: Cognitive Development
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- Assimilation: taking new knowledge into prior knowledge; expand exisiting - Accommodation: new knowledge stored in a new area of knowledge 1. Sensormotor Stage: [0-2] interact w/environment 2. Preoperational Stage: [2-7] represent world symbolically Ex. Asks where is your teddy bear? They recognize/imagery of what it is 3. Concrete Operational Stage: [7-12] learn rules such as conservation-> Ex. Learning 4. Formal Operational Stage: [12-adult] adolescence transcend concrete situations & think about the future -> Ex. Much deeper (love)= first crush/ younger response = my mommy, daddy,sister.. I I I. Learning Theories 1. Classical Conditioning: [ Pavlov] - pairing of stimuli (pixie stick experiment) 2. Operant Conditioning: [ Skinner] - behavior: abstract thinking, logical thinking, images of ideal circumstances 3. Social Learning: [Bandura] - social influences; mimic others 4. Information Processing Theory [Siegler] 5. Child Development as inseparable from Social & Cultural activities: [Vygotsky]
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