IR TEST 2 - Realism The Predominant IR Theory Realism o 2,500 years o Thucydides Machiavelli Hobbes Mearsheimer o Skeptical of human nature institutions

IR TEST 2 - Realism The Predominant IR Theory Realism o...

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Realism: The Predominant IR Theory Realism o 2,500 years o Thucydides, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Mearsheimer o Skeptical of human nature, institutions o Single source elucidation- Politics Among Nations by Hans Morgenthau The state is all o The modern state is a social organization with a monopoly on means of coercion (army, police, courts, laws and customs) o Security of the state always at risk in a world system of anarchy Essence of realism o State is supreme- sovereign, no higher authority o Survival- all else (ex. economies, diplomacy, etc. is “low politics”) o Self-help- marriages, threats, bargains Major varieties of realism o Classical Human nature produces realist world Patriotism essential to survival o Structural No overall authority in system Power is means to security History of the Peloponnesian War by Thucydides, 411 BCE o “Love of power caused the war” o Athenian historian, general, political philosopher o War between Sparta and Athens o Pericles’ Funeral Oration, 430 BCE Famous speech from History of the Peloponnesian War Speech by Athenian politician Pericles at end of first year of war as part of annual public funeral for those who died in war Said Athens is an “education to Greece” (liberal) “It may have been wrong to acquire a tyranny, it certainly is dangerous to let it go”- realist o Melian Dialogue, 416 BCE “The strong take what they will, the weak suffer what they must” – Athenians to Melos Athens invaded island Melos Niccolo Machiavelli, 1469-1527 o Founder of modern political science and political ethics o Italian o Wrote The Prince, 1532 1 st work in Christendom with no reference to conventional Christian morality Studies principalities, not republics
“Raison d’etat”- a purely political reason for action, becomes the standard “How we live is so different from how we ought to live that he who studies ought to be done rather than what is done will learn the way to his downfall rather than to his preservation” o Opinion on war Wars necessary to Prince’s reputation One’s own soldiers are “sinews of war” (sinew means piece of tough fibrous tissue uniting muscle to bone) The Prince’s main study must be war “Wars are made with steel, not gold” o The Prince as a leader Learn to do evil on behalf of the state Act quickly and ruthlessly Better to be feared than loved Thomas Hobbes, 1588-1679 o His world- English civil wars o English philosopher, especially political philosophy o Book Leviathan established social contract theory Addresses the questions of the origin of society and the legitimacy of the authority of the state over the individual Individuals have consented to surrender some of their freedoms to authority of ruler in order to protect their remaining rights o Opinion on human nature We’re all equal- all can kill each other The “state of nature” is “the scrimmage of all against all” “The life of man is nasty, poor, solitary, brutish, and short” Only a “common power” formed by a contract can prevent constant strife Politics Among Nations-

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