Abhi JainChapter 10 NotesChristianity, Byzantine Empire, & Dark Ages in Europe500 C.E. – 1300 C.E.Summary: This chapter for the most part focuses on the areas of the world between 500 C.E. to 1300 C.E. that were Christian. Thus, the chapter discusses the shrinkage and spread of Christianity after Islam, the fall of the Roman Empire, and the Great Schism in several areas of the world. After the fall of the Roman Empire, predominantly Christian Europe split in half.Organization of the Chapter:It begins by talking about the contraction of Christianity after the fall of the Roman Empire and the emergence of Islam in four areas of the world: Middle East, China, Egypt, and Ethiopia.It will also introduce the Byzantine Empire and the first major division of Christianity, known as the Great Schism. Shrinkage [Contraction] of Christianity [Pg. 465 – 469, Section “Christian Contraction in…”]In What Ways and Why Did Christianity Shrink in the Following Areas of the World Between 500 C.E. to1300 C.E.?MiddleEast●It was in Arabias the birthplace of Islam that Christianity decimated quickly and completely●During the 8th century Muslims marked the replacement of the old religion with Islam●When expanding Muslim forces took control of Jerusalem in 638 and subsequently constructed the Muslim shrine on a sacred jewish and Christian locations●When the caliph Abd al-Malik ordered a new construction on that site he was appropriating for both Jewish and Christian legacies●Arab conquest of Syria and Persia made people voluntarily turn to islam because of its grandeur and success●Sometimes churches and other religious places were plundered and destroyed deco=imitatingthe Christian faith●Christians were made second class citizensChina●Nestorian church was initiated in 635 by a Persian monastery monk●Incorporated Buddhist values and Daoist ones●In the mid ninth century the Chinese state turned against all religions of foreign origins, Islam and Buddhism as well as christianity. Wit this Christianity received a major blowback.●Mongols allowed resurgence of Christianity by the short lived empire soon need along with Christianity and Confucianism replaced it.Egypt●Along the coastal North Africa widespread conversion to Islam reduced to virtual extinction of Christian communities that had earlier provided manu of the martyrs and intellectuals of the earlier church.●In Egypt Christianity was practiced as legally inferior but protected people who had to pay special taxes●By the 13th century when Christian crusaders from europe started arriving the loyalty of Christian subject was put under a microscope and churches were burned and stuff.Ethiopia●Egyptian traders had introduced Christianity to Nubia●Nubian armies defeated Arab armies twice and resisted Muslim rule●When Egypt started changing Nubia followed●Ethiopia had become a Christian island protected by its mountainous geography and and its distance from major centers of islamic power.