BYU-Idaho Online LearningBIO 265L“GFR_Inulin” Transcript[Video of rapidly-changing images with music leads to a slide entitled “Anatomy & Physiology” with images of molecules, blood cells, the nervous system, neurons, and a human’s muscular system. A new slide appears that poses the question: “Can a Person Increase Vital Capacity?” This slide is replaced by a moving image of a heart cut in half. A large, blue tube comes out of the top from the left side of the heart. Two little red tubes extend from each side of the heart. The largest, red tube comes up from the top of the heart. Another large, blue tube comes up to the right out of the top of the heart. The heart itself shows the inside of the two halves of the heart with white tissue in each half]MAN:Let’s review cardiac output. Every time the heart beats, a bolus of blood moves from the left ventricle into the aorta.[Caption appears at top of screen that says, “Bolus of Blood Represents ‘Stroke Volume’” with a red arrow from “‘Stroke Volume’” to the biggest, red tube coming out of the top of the heart. This tube has a bright spot of red that moves up and out of it]Cardiac output is a product of how many times the heart beats per minute and the volume of each beat, called the stroke volume. Now, let’s follow the aorta into the abdominal cavity.[Image of the abdominal cavity appears with a kidney labeled on either side. The left is above the labeled “Descending Colon” and the right is above the “Ascending Colon.” A large, red tube runs up and down in the center of the cavity. A large, blue tube runs slightly behind it and to the right of it. Other things are labeled, but the writing is indistinct]Each beat of the heart sends a bolus of blood down the aorta and a portion of this blood enters the renal arteries to feed the kidneys. [Bright spots of red move down the large, red tube and also out to thesides in small red tubes that lead to the kidneys]The fraction of cardiac output that enters the kidney is called the renal fraction, and it is about twenty percent. Let’s take a closer look at the kidney.[Image appears on top of the left kidney in the abdominal cavity. This new image zooms in and then becomes the only image on the screen]
BYU-Idaho Online LearningBIO 265LHere we see a kidney sliced in half through the frontal plane. Notice the pyramids. Let’s take a closer look through one of the pyramids.[Many things are labeled in the kidney, but most are indistinct. A red circle appears around one of several hill-like structures jutting inwardfrom the lining of the kidney. Upon closer examination, it is realized that these hill-like structures are labeled as “pyramids.” The selected pyramid zooms in and takes up the screen. We see several lines of red, blue, and green, but nothing is distinct]In the pyramids are structures called nephrons.