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Exam 1 Test Bank:Topic 1: Definition of Ecology1.The Cary institute definition of ecology is “the scientific study of the processes influencing the distribution and abundance of organisms, the interactions among organisms, and the interactions between organisms and the transformation and flux of energy and matter”. Which of the three components of this definition come from the definitions of: a.Ernst Haeckelb.Herbert Andrewartha and Charles Birchc.Eugene OdumTopic 2: Evolution1.What two types of experiments are used to establish selection for locally adapted traits? 2.Consider a common garden experiment involving seeds of a species of orchid from mountain top and low elevation populations. On the mountain tops the orchid has a thicker stalk an a shorter overall stature; in the low elevation population, the stalks are thinner and grow taller. a.What experimental outcome would indicate that these populations had been selected for locally adapted traits?b.What experimental outcome would indicate that the observed differences between these populations was due to phenotypic plasticity?3.Define phenotypic plasticity- local variation due to differential expression of traits, not due to differential of genes. 4.Define Convergent Evolution- structures are analogous (same from or function), but not homologous (don’t share common ancestry). 5.Define Parallel evolution. – 6.What is the difference between allopatric and sympatric speciation?Topic 3: Measuring populations1.What is the difference between a unitary and a modular organism?2.What is the difference between a genet and a ramet?
3.What is the difference between strip transect sampling and distance sampling?4.What is the goal of stratification in sampling design?